Document


As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on March 30, 2021

Registration No. 333-__________

UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
________________________________________
FORM S-3
REGISTRATION STATEMENT
UNDER
THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933
________________________________________
Daré Bioscience, Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
20-4139823
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)

3655 Nobel Drive, Suite 260
San Diego, California 92122
(858) 926-7655
(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of
registrant’s principal executive offices)
________________________________________
Lisa Walters-Hoffert
Chief Financial Officer
Daré Bioscience, Inc.
3655 Nobel Drive, Suite 260
San Diego, California 92122
(858) 926-7655
(Name, address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of agent for service)
________________________________________
Copies to:
Scott M. Stanton, Esq.
Jenna M. Stewart, Esq.
Mintz, Levin, Cohn, Ferris, Glovsky and Popeo, P.C.
3580 Carmel Mountain Road, Suite 300
San Diego, California 92130
(858) 314-1500
________________________________________
Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public:
From time to time after the effective date of this registration statement as determined by the registrant.
If the only securities being registered on this Form are being offered pursuant to dividend or interest reinvestment plans, please check the following box: ¨



If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, other than securities offered only in connection with dividend or interest reinvestment plans, check the following box: x
If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ¨
If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ¨
If this Form is a registration statement pursuant to General Instruction I.D. or a post-effective amendment thereto that shall become effective upon filing with the Commission pursuant to Rule 462(e) under the Securities Act, check the following box. ¨
If this Form is a post-effective amendment to a registration statement filed pursuant to General Instruction I.D. filed to register additional securities or additional classes of securities pursuant to Rule 413(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box. ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer ¨
Accelerated filer ¨
Non-accelerated filer x
Smaller reporting company x
Emerging growth company ¨

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act. ¨
________________________________________
CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE
Title of Each Class of
Securities to be Registered
Amount to be Registered (1)Proposed
Maximum Offering Price per Unit (3)
Proposed
Maximum Aggregate Offering Price (3)
Amount of Registration Fee
Common Stock, $0.0001 par value
(2)(3)(3)
Preferred Stock, $0.01 par value(2)(3)(3)
Debt Securities(2)(3)(3)
Warrants(2)(3)(3)
Rights(2)(3)(3)
Purchase Contracts(2)(3)(3)
Units(2)(3)(3)
Total(2)$200,000,000(3)$18,470(4)




(1)Pursuant to Rule 416 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), the shares being registered hereunder include such indeterminate number of shares of common stock as may be issuable with respect to the shares being registered hereunder as a result of stock splits, stock dividends or similar transactions.
(2)There are being registered hereunder such indeterminate number of shares of common stock and preferred stock, such indeterminate principal amount of debt securities, such indeterminate number of warrants, rights and purchase contracts to purchase common stock, preferred stock or debt securities, and such indeterminate number of units, as shall have an aggregate initial offering price not to exceed $200,000,000. Any securities registered hereunder may be sold separately or as units with other securities registered hereunder. The securities registered also include such indeterminate number of shares of common stock and preferred stock and amount of debt securities as may be issued upon conversion of or exchange for preferred stock or debt securities that provide for conversion or exchange, upon exercise of warrants or rights or performance of purchase contracts or pursuant to the anti-dilution provisions of any such securities.
(3)The proposed maximum initial offering price per share or unit and the proposed maximum aggregate offering price per class of security will be determined, from time to time, by the registrant in connection with the issuance by the registrant of the securities registered hereunder and is not specified as to each class of security pursuant to General Instruction II.D. of Form S-3. If any debt securities are issued at an original issue discount, then the offering price of such debt securities shall be in such greater principal amount as shall result in an aggregate initial offering price not to exceed $200,000,000, less the aggregate dollar amount of all securities previously issued hereunder.
(4)Pursuant to Rule 415(a)(6) under the Securities Act, the securities registered hereunder include unsold securities previously registered pursuant to Registration Statement No. 333-227019, which was declared effective on September 21, 2018 (the “Prior Registration Statement”). The Prior Registration Statement registered the offer and sale of an indeterminate principal amount of debt securities and an indeterminate number of shares of common stock, shares of preferred stock, depositary shares, purchase contracts, purchase units and warrants to purchase common stock, preferred stock, depositary shares or debt securities having an aggregate initial offering price not to exceed $60,000,000, of which $30,701,865 remain unsold (the “Unsold Securities”) as the date of filing of this registration statement, which the registrant has determined to include in this registration statement. The registrant paid a filing fee of $7,470 (calculated at the prior filing fee rate) relating to the Unsold Securities under the Prior Registration Statement and pursuant to Rule 415(a)(6) under the Securities Act, no additional filing fee is due with respect to the Unsold Securities in connection with the filing of this registration statement. The registrant is also registering new securities on this registration statement with an aggregate initial offering price of $169,298,135 (the “New Securities”), which aggregate offering price is not specified as to each class of securities. A filing fee of $18,470 with respect to the New Securities is being paid in connection with the filing of this registration statement. To the extent that, after the filing date hereof and prior to the effectiveness of this registration statement, the registrant sells any Unsold Securities pursuant to the Prior Registration Statement, the registrant will identify in a pre-effective amendment to this registration statement the updated amount of Unsold Securities from the Prior Registration Statement to be included in this registration statement pursuant to Rule 415(a)(6) and the updated amount of New Securities to be registered on this registration statement. Pursuant to Rule 415(a)(6), the offering of the Unsold Securities under the Prior Registration Statement will be deemed terminated as of the date of effectiveness of this registration statement.
THE REGISTRANT HEREBY AMENDS THIS REGISTRATION STATEMENT ON SUCH DATE OR DATES AS MAY BE NECESSARY TO DELAY ITS EFFECTIVE DATE UNTIL THE REGISTRANT SHALL FILE A FURTHER AMENDMENT WHICH SPECIFICALLY STATES THAT THIS REGISTRATION STATEMENT SHALL THEREAFTER BECOME EFFECTIVE IN ACCORDANCE WITH SECTION 8(a) OF THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933, AS AMENDED, OR UNTIL THE REGISTRATION STATEMENT SHALL BECOME EFFECTIVE ON SUCH DATE AS THE SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION, ACTING PURSUANT TO SAID SECTION 8(a), MAY DETERMINE.




The information in this prospectus is not complete and may be changed. We may not sell these securities until the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission becomes effective. This prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities and it is not soliciting any offer to buy these securities in any state or jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.
SUBJECT TO COMPLETION, DATED MARCH 30, 2021
PROSPECTUS
DARÉ BIOSCIENCE, INC.
https://cdn.kscope.io/3737b6a2f9a69fb600dbdeb3433332bd-darebioinlinefullcolorrgbab.jpg

$200,000,000
COMMON STOCK
PREFERRED STOCK
DEBT SECURITIES
WARRANTS
RIGHTS
PURCHASE CONTRACTS
UNITS

This prospectus will allow us to issue, from time to time at prices and on terms to be determined at or prior to the time of the offering, up to $200,000,000 of any combination of the securities described in this prospectus, either individually or in units. We may also offer common stock or preferred stock upon conversion of or exchange for the debt securities; common stock upon conversion of or exchange for the preferred stock; common stock, preferred stock or debt securities upon the exercise of warrants or rights; or any combination of our equity securities upon the performance of purchase contracts.
This prospectus describes the general terms of these securities and the general manner in which these securities will be offered. We will provide you with the specific terms of any offering in one or more supplements to this prospectus. The prospectus supplements will also describe the specific manner in which these securities will be offered and may also supplement, update or amend information contained in this document. You should read this prospectus and any prospectus supplement, as well as any documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus or any prospectus supplement, carefully before you invest.
Our securities may be sold directly by us to you, through agents designated from time to time or to or through underwriters or dealers. For additional information on the methods of sale, you should refer to the section entitled “Plan of Distribution” in this prospectus and in the applicable prospectus supplement. If any underwriters or agents are involved in the sale of our securities with respect to which this prospectus is being delivered, the names of such underwriters or agents and any applicable fees, commissions or discounts and over- allotment options will be set forth in a prospectus supplement. The price to the public of such securities and the net proceeds that we expect to receive from such sale will also be set forth in a prospectus supplement.
Our common stock is listed on The Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbol “DARE.” On March 29, 2021, the last reported sale price of our common stock was $1.65. The applicable prospectus supplement will contain information, where applicable, as to any other listing, if any, on any securities market or other securities exchange of the securities covered by the prospectus supplement. Prospective purchasers of our securities are urged to obtain current information as to the market prices of our securities, where applicable.

Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. Before deciding whether to invest in our securities, you should consider carefully the risks that we have described on page 8 of this prospectus under the caption “Risk Factors,” as well as in the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus.



Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.
The date of this prospectus is, 2021.





TABLE OF CONTENTS





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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS
This prospectus is part of a registration statement that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, utilizing a “shelf” registration process. Under this shelf registration process, we may offer shares of our common stock and preferred stock, various series of debt securities and/or warrants, rights or purchase contracts to purchase any of such securities, either individually or in units, in one or more offerings, with a total value of up to $200,000,000. This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities we may offer. Each time we offer securities under this prospectus, we will provide a prospectus supplement that will contain specific information about the type or series of securities offered and the terms of that offering.
This prospectus does not contain all of the information included in the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part. For a more complete understanding of the offering of the securities, you should refer to the registration statement, including its exhibits. This prospectus, together with any prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus that we subsequently authorize for use in connection with this offering and the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus, includes all material information relating to the offering of securities under this prospectus. You should carefully read this prospectus, any prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus that we subsequently authorize for use in connection with this offering, the information and documents incorporated herein by reference and the additional information under the heading “Where You Can Find More Information” before making an investment decision.
You should rely only on the information we have provided or incorporated by reference in this prospectus, or in any prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus that we subsequently authorize for use in connection with this offering. Neither we, nor any selling stockholder, have authorized anyone to provide you with information different from that contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus. If anyone provides you with different or inconsistent information, you should not rely on it. You should assume that the information in this prospectus, or any related prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus, is accurate only as of the date on the front of the document and that any information we have incorporated herein by reference is accurate only as of the date of the document incorporated by reference, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus, or such prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus, or any sale of a security.
Neither we, nor any selling stockholder, are offering to sell or seeking offers to purchase these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted. We have not done anything that would permit this offering or possession or distribution of this prospectus in any jurisdiction where action for that purpose is required, other than in the United States. Persons outside the United States who come into possession of this prospectus must inform themselves about, and observe any restrictions relating to, the offering of the securities hereunder and the distribution of this prospectus outside the United States.
The representations, warranties and covenants made by us in any agreement that is filed as an exhibit to any document that is incorporated by reference in this prospectus were made solely for the benefit of the parties to such agreement, including, in some cases, for the purpose of allocating risk among the parties to such agreements, and should not be deemed to be a representation, warranty or covenant to you. Moreover, such representations, warranties or covenants were accurate only as of the date when made. Accordingly, such representations, warranties and covenants should not be relied on as accurately representing the current state of our affairs.
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Unless otherwise indicated, information contained in this prospectus concerning our industry and the markets in which we operate, including our general expectations and market position, market opportunity and market size, is based on information from various sources, including peer reviewed journals, formal presentations at medical and scientific society meetings and third-parties commissioned by us or our licensors to provide market research and analysis, and is subject to a number of assumptions and limitations. Although we are responsible for all of the disclosure contained in this prospectus and we believe the information from industry publications and other third-party sources included in this prospectus is reliable, such information is inherently imprecise. Information that is based on estimates, forecasts, projections, market research or similar methodologies is inherently subject to uncertainties and actual events or circumstances may differ materially from events and circumstances that are assumed in this information. The industry in which we operate is subject to a high degree of uncertainty and risk due to a variety of factors.
To the extent there are inconsistencies between this prospectus, any related prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus, and any documents incorporated by reference, the document with the most recent date will control.
Unless the context otherwise requires, “Daré,” “Daré Bioscience,” “the Company,” “we,” “us,” “our” and similar terms refer to Daré Bioscience, Inc. and its subsidiaries. When we refer to “you” we mean potential holders of the securities we may offer under this prospectus.
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PROSPECTUS SUMMARY
This summary highlights information contained elsewhere in this prospectus. This summary does not contain all of the information you should consider before investing in our securities. We urge you to read this entire prospectus, including our consolidated financial statements, notes to our consolidated financial statements and other information incorporated herein by reference to our other filings with the SEC, or included in any applicable prospectus supplement.
About Daré Bioscience
We are a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company committed to advancing innovative products for women’s health. We are driven by a mission to identify, develop and bring to market a diverse portfolio of differentiated therapies that expand treatment options, improve outcomes and facilitate convenience for women, primarily in the areas of contraception, vaginal health, sexual health and fertility. Our business strategy is to in-license or otherwise acquire the rights to differentiated product candidates in our areas of focus, some of which have existing clinical proof-of-concept data, to take those candidates through mid- to late-stage clinical development, and to establish and leverage strategic partnerships to achieve commercialization.
Since July 2017, we have assembled a portfolio of clinical-stage and pre-clinical-stage candidates. While we will continue to assess opportunities to expand our portfolio, our current focus is on advancing our existing product candidates through mid- and late stages of clinical development or U.S. Food and Drug Administration, or FDA, approval. Our portfolio includes three product candidates in advanced clinical development:
DARE-BV1, a novel thermosetting bioadhesive hydrogel formulated with clindamycin phosphate 2% to be administered in a single vaginally delivered application, as a first line treatment for bacterial vaginosis;
Ovaprene®, a hormone-free, monthly vaginal contraceptive; and
Sildenafil Cream, 3.6%, a proprietary cream formulation of sildenafil for topical administration to the vulva and vagina for treatment of female sexual arousal disorder.
Our portfolio also includes three product candidates in Phase 1 clinical development or that we believe are Phase 1-ready:
DARE-HRT1, a combination bio-identical estradiol and progesterone intravaginal ring for the treatment of menopausal symptoms, including vasomotor symptoms, as part of a hormone therapy following menopause;
DARE-FRT1, an intravaginal ring containing bio-identical progesterone for the prevention of preterm birth and broader luteal phase support as part of an in vitro fertilization treatment plan; and
DARE-VVA1, a vaginally delivered formulation of tamoxifen to treat vulvar vaginal atrophy in patients with hormone-receptor positive breast cancer.
In addition, our portfolio includes these pre-clinical stage product candidates:
DARE-LARC1, a combination product designed to provide long-acting, reversible contraception comprising an implantable, user-controlled wireless drug delivery system and levonorgestrel;
ORB-204 and ORB-214, injectable formulations of etonogestrel designed to provide contraception over 6-month and 12-month periods, respectively; and
DARE-RH1, a novel approach to non-hormonal contraception for both men and women by targeting the CatSper ion channel.
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Our primary operations have consisted of, and are expected to continue to consist primarily of, product research and development and advancing our portfolio of product candidates through clinical development and regulatory approval. We expect that the majority of our research and development expenses in 2021 and 2022 will support the advancement of DARE-BV1, Ovaprene and Sildenafil Cream, 3.6%. To date, we have not obtained any regulatory approvals for any of our product candidates, commercialized any of our product candidates or generated any product revenue.
The effect of the COVID-19 pandemic and efforts to reduce the spread of COVID-19 remain a rapidly evolving and uncertain risk to our business, operating results, financial condition and stock price. In November 2020, the U.S. began to experience a substantial surge in cases and hospitalizations and intensive care unit capacity became strained. States and counties across the country imposed or re-imposed stay-at-home orders and shutdowns of non-essential businesses in efforts to reduce spread of the disease. As of March 29, 2021, the FDA had issued emergency use authorizations for three vaccines for the prevention of COVID-19. However, while President Biden recently said that there will be enough vaccine supply for every adult in the U.S. by the end of May 2021, the vaccination effort in the U.S. and elsewhere got off to a bumpy start and continues to face significant, complex challenges, and the timeline for the pandemic and its associated restrictions to end remain uncertain. Given the high level of uncertainty regarding the duration and impact of the pandemic on the U.S. and global economies, workplace environments and capital markets, we are unable to assess the full extent of the effects of the pandemic on our business. These effects could have a material adverse impact on our business, operating results and financial condition, including, without limitation, by adversely impacting our ability to raise capital when needed or on terms favorable or acceptable to us and increasing the anticipated aggregate costs and timelines for the development and marketing approval of our product candidates. For further discussion of risks and uncertainties related to the COVID-19 pandemic, see the risk factor titled, The COVID-19 pandemic and efforts to reduce the spread of COVID-19 could negatively impact our business, including by increasing the cost and timelines for our clinical development programs, in Part I, Item 1A. Risk Factors of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020 that is incorporated by reference into this prospectus, as well as any risk factor similarly subcaptioned in any document subsequently incorporated by reference into this prospectus or any amendment or supplement to this prospectus.
Summary of Risk Factors
Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. Before deciding whether to purchase any of our securities, you should carefully consider the risks and uncertainties described in the section captioned “Risk Factors” in this prospectus and the applicable accompanying prospectus supplement, and under similar headings in the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus and the applicable accompanying prospectus supplement. The occurrence of any of these risk factors could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects. In these circumstances, the market price of our common stock could decline, and you may lose all or part of your investment in our common stock. These risk factors include, but are not limited to, the following:
We will need to raise additional capital to continue our operations and remain a going concern, and our ability to do so may be limited and more expensive due to low trading volume, price or market capitalization, our lack of revenue, net losses and limited operating history, and/or applicable laws and regulations. If we fail to obtain additional capital, we will be unable to complete development or obtain regulatory approval for commercialization of our product candidates.
We have a limited operating history, have incurred significant losses since our inception and expect to continue to incur losses for the foreseeable future, which, together with our limited financial resources and substantial capital requirements, make it difficult to assess our prospects.
The COVID-19 pandemic and efforts to reduce the spread of COVID-19 could negatively impact our business, including by increasing the cost and timelines for our clinical development programs.
We may not receive any additional payments under our license agreement with Bayer, and Bayer may terminate the agreement at any time without cause upon limited prior notice.
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Due in part to our limited financial resources, we may fail to effectively develop the product candidates in our portfolio and execute our current product development plans, including the commencement and completion of clinical trials and regulatory submissions, in accordance with our current timeline expectations.
We depend heavily on the success of our lead product candidates, DARE-BV1, Ovaprene and Sildenafil Cream, 3.6%. Clinical development is a lengthy and expensive process with an inherently uncertain outcome. Failure to successfully develop and obtain regulatory approval to market and sell any of these product candidates on our anticipated timelines, or at all, could have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results and financial condition.
We have a relatively small number of employees and if we fail to attract and retain key personnel, we may not successfully complete development of, obtain regulatory approval for or commercialize our product candidates, or otherwise implement our business plan.
We rely on, and intend to continue to rely on, third parties for the execution of significant aspects of our product development programs, including the conduct of our clinical and non-clinical studies and the supply and manufacture of our product candidates. Failure of these third parties, including multiple single source suppliers and manufacturers, to successfully carry out their contractual duties, comply with regulatory requirements and applicable law, or meet expected deadlines may cause significant delays in our development timelines and/or failure of our programs.
Interim, topline and preliminary data from our clinical trials that we announce or publish from time to time may change as more patient data become available and are subject to audit and verification procedures that could result in material changes in the final data, and others, including regulatory authorities, may not agree with our interpretation of study data.
Our business depends on obtaining the approval of regulatory authorities, and in particular, FDA approval, for our product candidates in a timely manner, and the requirements or pathways for obtaining approval for our product candidates may change over time, requiring more financial resources and development time than we currently anticipate.
Our business strategy is to establish and leverage strategic partnerships to achieve commercialization of our product candidates, if approved. We have no internal sales, marketing or distribution capabilities. Under any such collaborations, we may not have control over several key elements relating to the development and commercialization of our product candidates, and any failure by such third parties to adequately perform their obligations under our agreements could negatively impact our business, operating results and financial condition.
The product candidates we are developing or may develop are likely to face significant competition. If we receive marketing approval for any of our product candidates, their ability to compete and potential to generate revenue will be impacted by the efficacy and safety outcomes of our clinical trials, the label claims that the FDA or other regulatory authorities approve for the product, and the degree of acceptance among the medical community and consumers and their preference of our products over available alternative products.
Even if we obtain regulatory approval in the United States or elsewhere to market any of our products, the reimbursement environment at the time of approval may hurt our financial prospects. If the out-of-pocket costs for our products are deemed by women to be unaffordable, a commercial market may never develop.
The loss or impairment of our rights under any license agreement for our lead product candidates could prevent us from developing or commercializing them, which would have a material adverse effect on our business prospects, operations and viability.
Our failure to adequately protect or enforce our and our licensors’ intellectual property rights could materially harm our proprietary position in the marketplace or prevent or impede the commercialization of our current and potential future products.
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Lack of patent protection for the active ingredients in certain of our product candidates, including DARE-BV1 and Sildenafil Cream, 3.6%, may limit the commercial opportunity for those products if competitors are able to develop and commercialize safe and effective alternative formulations or methods of delivery of the active ingredients.
The price of our common stock has been and may continue to be highly volatile and such volatility could be unrelated to our performance and operating results. Volatility in our market price may subject us to increased risk of securities litigation, including class-action lawsuits, which could be expensive and divert management attention.
There is no assurance that we will continue satisfying the listing requirements of the Nasdaq Capital Market, and such failure could result in the suspension or delisting of our common stock, which could, among other things, substantially impair our ability to raise additional capital and have an adverse effect on the market price of, and the efficiency of the trading market for, our common stock.
Future sales and issuances of our equity, including sales and issuances of our common stock under our ATM sales agreement, under our purchase agreement with Lincoln Park and upon exercise of our stock options and warrants, or the perception that such sales may occur, could adversely affect the market price of our common stock, even if our business is doing well.
Cyber-attacks, security breaches, loss of data and other disruptions to our information technology systems or those of our third-party service providers could compromise sensitive information related to our business, delay or prevent us from accessing critical information or expose us to liability, any of which could adversely affect our business and our reputation.
Additional Information
For additional information related to our business and operations, please refer to the annual and quarterly reports incorporated herein by reference, as described under the caption “Incorporation of Documents by Reference” on page 29 of this prospectus.
Corporate Information
We are incorporated under the laws of the State of Delaware. Our principal executive offices are located at 3655 Nobel Drive, Suite 260, San Diego, California 92122, and our telephone number at that address is (858) 926-7655. We maintain a website at www.darebioscience.com, to which we regularly post copies of our press releases as well as additional information about us. The information contained on, or that can be accessed through, our website is not a part of this prospectus. We have included our website address in this prospectus solely as an inactive textual reference.
Daré Bioscience® is a registered trademark of Daré Bioscience, Inc. Ovaprene® is a registered trademark licensed to Daré Bioscience, Inc. All brand names or trademarks appearing in this prospectus are the property of their respective holders. Use or display by us of other parties’ trademarks, trade dress, or products in this prospectus is not intended to, and does not, imply a relationship with, or endorsements or sponsorship of, us by the trademark or trade dress owners.
Offerings Under This Prospectus
Under this prospectus, we may offer shares of our common stock and preferred stock, various series of debt securities and/or warrants, rights or purchase contracts to purchase any of such securities, either individually or in units, with a total value of up to $200,000,000, from time to time at prices and on terms to be determined by market conditions at the time of the offering. This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities we may offer. Each time we offer a type or series of securities under this prospectus, we will provide a prospectus supplement that will describe the specific amounts, prices and other important terms of the securities, including, to the extent applicable:
designation or classification;
aggregate principal amount or aggregate offering price;
maturity, if applicable;
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rates and times of payment of interest or dividends, if any;
redemption, conversion or sinking fund terms, if any;
voting or other rights, if any; and
conversion or exercise prices, if any.
The prospectus supplement also may add, update or change information contained in this prospectus or in documents we have incorporated by reference into this prospectus. However, no prospectus supplement will fundamentally change the terms that are set forth in this prospectus or offer a security that is not registered and described in this prospectus at the time of its effectiveness.
We may sell the securities directly to investors or to or through agents, underwriters or dealers. We, and our agents or underwriters, reserve the right to accept or reject all or part of any proposed purchase of securities. If we offer securities through agents or underwriters, we will include in the applicable prospectus supplement:
the names of those agents or underwriters;
applicable fees, discounts and commissions to be paid to them;
details regarding over-allotment options, if any; and
the net proceeds to us.
This prospectus may not be used to consummate a sale of any securities unless it is accompanied by a prospectus supplement.

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RISK FACTORS
Investing in our securities involves significant risk. The prospectus supplement applicable to each offering of our securities will contain a discussion of risks related to that offering. Prior to making a decision about investing in our securities, you should carefully consider the specific factors discussed under the heading “Risk Factors” in the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, together with all of the other information contained or incorporated by reference in the prospectus supplement or contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus. You should carefully consider the risks, uncertainties and assumptions discussed under the heading “Risk Factors” in our most recent annual report on Form 10-K, as may be amended, supplemented or superseded from time to time by information in quarterly reports on Form 10-Q and current reports on Form 8-K that we file with the SEC after the date of this prospectus, all of which are incorporated herein by reference (other than current reports on Form 8-K, or portions thereof, furnished under Items 2.02 or 7.01 of Form 8-K). The risks and uncertainties we have described are not the only ones we face. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial may also affect our operations. The occurrence of any of these risks might cause you to lose all or part of your investment in the offered securities.

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SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus contain or incorporate by reference forward-looking statements that involve substantial risks and uncertainties. All statements, other than statements of historical facts, are forward-looking statements, including statements regarding our strategy, future operations, future financial position, projected costs, prospects, plans and objectives of management. Forward-looking statements, in some cases, can be identified by terms such as “believe,” “may,” “will,” “estimate,” “continue,” “anticipate,” “design,” “intend,” “expect,” “could,” “plan,” “potential,” “predict,” “seek,” “should,” “would,” “contemplate,” project,” “target,” “tend to,” or the negative version of these words and similar expressions.
Forward-looking statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause our actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different from any future results, performance or achievements expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements, including those factors discussed under the heading “Risk Factors” contained or incorporated in this prospectus and in any related prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus we may authorize for use in connection with a specific offering. These factors and the other cautionary statements contained or incorporated in this prospectus and in the applicable prospectus supplement and any free writing prospectus we may authorize for use in connection with a specific offering should be read as being applicable to all related forward-looking statements whenever they appear in this prospectus. Given these uncertainties, you should not place undue reliance on any forward-looking statement. The following factors are among those that may cause such differences:
Inability to continue as a going concern;
Inability to raise additional capital, under favorable terms or at all, including as a result of the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic;
Inability to successfully attract partners and enter into collaborations relating to the development and/or commercialization of our product candidates on a timely basis or on acceptable terms, or at all;
A decision by Bayer HealthCare LLC to discontinue its commercial interest in Ovaprene® and/or to terminate our license agreement;
Inability or an increase in projected costs to timely develop, obtain regulatory approval for and commercialize our product candidates;
Failure or delay in starting, conducting and completing clinical trials or obtaining FDA or foreign regulatory approval for our product candidates in a timely manner, including as a result of matters beyond our control such as the effects related to geopolitical actions, natural disasters, or public health emergencies or pandemics, such as the COVID-19 pandemic;
A change in the FDA Center assigned primary oversight responsibility for our combination product candidates;
A change in regulatory requirements for our product candidates, including the development pathway pursuant to Section 505(b)(2) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, or the FDA's 505(b)(2) pathway;
Unsuccessful clinical trial outcomes stemming from clinical trial designs, failure to enroll a sufficient number of patients, higher than anticipated patient dropout rates, failure to meet established clinical endpoints, undesirable side effects and other safety concerns;
Reaching a conclusion regarding the efficacy or safety of a product candidate following full evaluation of complete clinical study data that is materially different from topline study results we may report;
Communication from the FDA or another regulatory authority that it does not accept or agree with our assumptions, estimates, calculations, conclusions or analyses of clinical or nonclinical study data regarding a product candidate, or that it interprets or weighs the importance of study data differently than we have in a manner that negatively impacts the candidate's prospects for regulatory approval in a timely manner, or at all;
Negative publicity concerning the safety and efficacy of our product candidates, or of product candidates being developed by others that share characteristics similar to our candidates;
Inability to demonstrate sufficient efficacy of our product candidates;
Failure to select or capitalize on the most scientifically, clinically or commercially promising or profitable indications or therapeutic areas for our product candidates due to limited financial resources;
Loss of our licensed rights to develop and commercialize a product candidate as a result of the termination of the underlying licensing agreement;
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Monetary obligations and other requirements in connection with our exclusive, in-license agreements covering the patents and related intellectual property related to our product candidates, or our merger or asset purchase agreements relating to the acquisition of our product candidates;
Developments by our competitors that make our product candidates less competitive or obsolete;
Dependence on third parties to conduct nonclinical studies and clinical trials of our product candidates;
Dependence on third parties to supply and manufacture clinical trial materials and, if any of our candidates are approved, commercial product, including components of our products as well as the finished product, in accordance with current good manufacturing practices and in the quantities needed;
Cyber-attacks, security breaches or similar events compromising our technology systems or the technology systems of third parties on which we rely;
Interruptions in, or the complete shutdown of, the operations of third parties on which we rely, including clinical sites, manufacturers, suppliers, and other vendors, from matters beyond their control, such as the effects related to geopolitical actions, natural disasters, or public health emergencies or pandemics, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, and our lack of recourse against such third parties if their inability to perform is excused under the terms of our agreements with such parties;
Failure of our product candidates, if approved, to gain market acceptance or obtain adequate coverage for third party reimbursement;
A reduction in demand for contraceptives caused by an elimination of current requirements that health insurance plans cover and reimburse certain FDA-cleared or approved contraceptive products without cost sharing;
Uncertainty as to whether health insurance plans will cover our product candidates even if we successfully develop and obtain regulatory approval for them;
Unfavorable or inadequate reimbursement rates for our product candidates set by the United States government and other third-party payers even if they become covered products under health insurance plans;
Difficulty in introducing branded products in a market made up of generic products;
Inability to adequately protect or enforce our, or our licensor’s, intellectual property rights;
Lack of patent protection for the active ingredients in certain of our product candidates which could expose those product candidates to competition from other formulations using the same active ingredients;
Higher risk of failure associated with product candidates in pre-clinical stages of development that may lead investors to assign them little to no value and make these assets difficult to fund;
Disputes or other developments concerning our intellectual property rights;
Actual and anticipated fluctuations in our quarterly or annual operating results;
Price and volume fluctuations in the stock market, and in our stock in particular, which could subject us to securities class-action litigation;
Failure to maintain the listing of our common stock on the Nasdaq Capital Market or another nationally recognized exchange;
Litigation or public concern about the safety of our potential products;
Strict government regulations on our business, including various fraud and abuse laws, including, without limitation, the U.S. federal Anti-Kickback Statute, the U.S. federal False Claims Act and the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act;
Regulations governing the production or marketing of our product candidates;
Loss of, or inability to attract, key personnel; and
Increased costs as a result of operating as a public company, and substantial time devoted by our management to compliance initiatives and corporate governance practices.
You are cautioned not to place undue reliance on forward-looking statements, which speak only as of the date of this prospectus or the date of the document incorporated by reference in this prospectus. We do not undertake any obligation to publicly update any forward-looking statement to reflect events or circumstances after the date on which any statement is made or to reflect the occurrence of unanticipated events, except as required by law.
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USE OF PROCEEDS
We will have broad discretion over the use of net proceeds from the sale of securities offered hereby. Unless otherwise indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement and any free writing prospectus we may authorize for use in connection with a specific offering, we intend to use the net proceeds from the sale of securities under this prospectus for general corporate purposes, including working capital, operating expenses and capital expenditures. We may also use the net proceeds to repay any debts and/or acquire or invest in complementary businesses, products or technologies, although we have no current commitments or agreements with respect to any such acquisitions or investments as of the date of this prospectus.
We have not determined the amount of net proceeds to be used specifically for the foregoing purposes. As a result, you will be relying on the judgment of our management regarding the application of the proceeds of any sale of securities offered hereby. If a material part of the net proceeds is to be used to repay indebtedness, we will set forth the interest rate and maturity of such indebtedness in a prospectus supplement. Pending use of the net proceeds, we intend to invest the proceeds in interest-bearing, marketable securities.
PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION
We may offer securities under this prospectus from time to time pursuant to underwritten public offerings, negotiated transactions, block trades or a combination of these methods. We may sell the securities (1) through underwriters or dealers, (2) through agents or (3) directly to one or more purchasers, or through a combination of such methods. We may distribute the securities from time to time in one or more transactions at:
a fixed price or prices, which may be changed from time to time;
market prices prevailing at the time of sale;
prices related to the prevailing market prices; or
negotiated prices.
We may directly solicit offers to purchase the securities being offered by this prospectus. We may also designate agents to solicit offers to purchase the securities from time to time, and may enter into arrangements for “at-the-market,” equity line or similar transactions. We will name in a prospectus supplement any underwriter or agent involved in the offer or sale of the securities.
If we utilize a dealer in the sale of the securities being offered by this prospectus, we will sell the securities to the dealer, as principal. The dealer may then resell the securities to the public at varying prices to be determined by the dealer at the time of resale.
If we utilize an underwriter in the sale of the securities being offered by this prospectus, we will execute an underwriting agreement with the underwriter at the time of sale, and we will provide the name of any underwriter in the prospectus supplement which the underwriter will use to make resales of the securities to the public. In connection with the sale of the securities, we, or the purchasers of the securities for whom the underwriter may act as agent, may compensate the underwriter in the form of underwriting discounts or commissions. The underwriter may sell the securities to or through dealers, and the underwriter may compensate those dealers in the form of discounts, concessions or commissions.
With respect to underwritten public offerings, negotiated transactions and block trades, we will provide in the applicable prospectus supplement information regarding any compensation we pay to underwriters, dealers or agents in connection with the offering of the securities, and any discounts, concessions or commissions allowed by underwriters to participating dealers. Underwriters, dealers and agents participating in the distribution of the securities may be deemed to be underwriters within the meaning of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, and any discounts and commissions received by them and any profit realized by them on resale of the securities may be deemed to be underwriting discounts and commissions. We may enter into agreements to indemnify underwriters, dealers and agents against civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act, or to contribute to payments they may be required to make in respect thereof.
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If so indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will authorize underwriters, dealers or other persons acting as our agents to solicit offers by certain institutions to purchase securities from us pursuant to delayed delivery contracts providing for payment and delivery on the date stated in each applicable prospectus supplement. Each contract will be for an amount not less than, and the aggregate amount of securities sold pursuant to such contracts shall not be less nor more than, the respective amounts stated in each applicable prospectus supplement. Institutions with whom the contracts, when authorized, may be made include commercial and savings banks, insurance companies, pension funds, investment companies, educational and charitable institutions and other institutions, but shall in all cases be subject to our approval. Delayed delivery contracts will not be subject to any conditions except that:
the purchase by an institution of the securities covered under that contract shall not at the time of delivery be prohibited under the laws of the jurisdiction to which that institution is subject; and
if the securities are also being sold to underwriters acting as principals for their own account, the underwriters shall have purchased such securities not sold for delayed delivery. The underwriters and other persons acting as our agents will not have any responsibility in respect of the validity or performance of delayed delivery contracts.
One or more firms, referred to as “remarketing firms,” may also offer or sell the securities, if a prospectus supplement so indicates, in connection with a remarketing arrangement upon their purchase. Remarketing firms will act as principals for their own accounts or as our agents. These remarketing firms will offer or sell the securities in accordance with the terms of the securities. Each prospectus supplement will identify and describe any remarketing firm and the terms of its agreement, if any, with us and will describe the remarketing firm’s compensation. Remarketing firms may be deemed to be underwriters in connection with the securities they remarket. Remarketing firms may be entitled under agreements that may be entered into with us to indemnification by us against certain civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act, and may be customers of, engage in transactions with or perform services for us in the ordinary course of business.
Certain underwriters may use this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement for offers and sales related to market-making transactions in the securities. These underwriters may act as principal or agent in these transactions, and the sales will be made at prices related to prevailing market prices at the time of sale. Any underwriters involved in the sale of the securities may qualify as “underwriters” within the meaning of Section 2(a)(11) of the Securities Act. In addition, the underwriters’ commissions, discounts or concessions may qualify as underwriters’ compensation under the Securities Act and the rules of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc., or FINRA.
All securities we may offer, other than shares of our common stock, may be new issues of securities with no established trading market. Any agents or underwriters may make a market in these securities, but will not be obligated to do so and may discontinue any market making at any time without notice. We can make no assurance as to the liquidity of or the existence, development or maintenance of trading markets for any of the securities. There is currently no market for any of the securities we may offer hereby, other than our common stock which is listed on the Nasdaq Capital Market. Underwriters may make a market in our common stock, but will not be obligated to do so and may discontinue any market making at any time without notice. We have no current plans for listing of the preferred stock, debt securities, warrants, rights or units on any securities exchange or quotation system; any such listing with respect to any particular preferred stock, debt securities, warrants, rights or units will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement or other offering materials, as the case may be.
In order to facilitate the offering of the securities, certain persons participating in the offering may engage in transactions that stabilize, maintain or otherwise affect the price of the securities. This may include over-allotments or short sales of the securities, which involve the sale by persons participating in the offering of more securities than we sold to them. In these circumstances, these persons would cover such over-allotments or short positions by making purchases in the open market or by exercising their over-allotment option. In addition, these persons may stabilize or maintain the price of the securities by bidding for or purchasing the applicable security in the open market or by imposing penalty bids, whereby selling concessions allowed to dealers participating in the offering may be reclaimed if the securities sold by them are repurchased in connection with stabilization transactions. The effect of these transactions may be to stabilize or maintain the market price of the securities at a level above that which might otherwise prevail in the open market. These transactions may be discontinued at any time.
The underwriters, dealers and agents may engage in other transactions with us, or perform other services for us, in the ordinary course of their business.
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Under Rule 15c6-1 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, trades in the secondary market generally are required to settle in two business days, unless the parties to any such trade expressly agree otherwise or the securities are sold by us to an underwriter in a firm commitment underwritten offering. The applicable prospectus supplement may provide that the original issue date for your securities may be more than two scheduled business days after the trade date for your securities. Accordingly, in such a case, if you wish to trade securities on any date prior to the second business day before the original issue date for your securities, you will be required, by virtue of the fact that your securities initially are expected to settle in more than two scheduled business days after the trade date for your securities, to make alternative settlement arrangements to prevent a failed settlement.
DESCRIPTION OF COMMON STOCK
We are authorized to issue 120,000,000 shares of common stock, par value $0.0001 per share. As of March 29, 2021, we had 47,312,822 shares of common stock outstanding.
The following summary of certain provisions of our common stock does not purport to be complete. You should refer to the section of this prospectus entitled “Certain Provisions of Delaware Law and of Our Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws” and our Restated Certificate of Incorporation, as amended, referred to herein as our restated certificate of incorporation, and our Second Amended and Restated By-laws, as amended, referred to herein as our restated bylaws, both of which are included as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part. The summary below is also qualified by provisions of applicable law.
General
Voting Rights
Holders of our common stock are entitled to one vote for each share held on all matters submitted to a vote of stockholders, except that unless otherwise required by law, holders of our common stock are not entitled to vote on any amendment to our restated certificate of incorporation that relates solely to the terms of one or more outstanding series of preferred stock, if the holders of such affected series are entitled, either separately or together as a class with the holders of one or more such other series, to vote thereon pursuant to our restated certificate of incorporation. Holders of our common stock do not have cumulative voting rights.
An election of directors will be decided by a plurality of the votes cast by the stockholders entitled to vote on the election at a duly held stockholders’ meeting at which a quorum is present. All other questions will be decided by a majority of the votes cast by stockholders entitled to vote thereon at a duly held meeting of stockholders at which a quorum is present, except when a different vote is required by law, our restated certificate of incorporation or restated bylaws.
Dividends
Holders of our common stock are entitled to receive proportionately any dividends as may be declared by our board of directors out of legally available funds, subject to any preferential dividend or other rights of any series of preferred stock that we may designate and issue in the future.
Liquidation and Dissolution
In the event of our liquidation, dissolution or winding up, the holders of our common stock will be entitled to share ratably in the net assets legally available for distribution to stockholders after the payment of all of our debts and other liabilities and the satisfaction of any liquidation preference of any then outstanding shares of preferred stock.
No Preemptive Rights
Holders of our common stock have no preemptive, conversion, subscription or other rights, and there are no redemption or sinking fund provisions applicable to our common stock.
Rights of Preferred Stock May be Senior to Rights of Common Stock
Our board of directors has the authority, without further action by our stockholders, to issue up to 5,000,000 shares of preferred stock in one or more series and to fix the rights, preferences, privileges and restrictions thereof. These rights, preferences and privileges could include dividend rights, conversion rights, voting rights, terms of redemption, and liquidation preferences, any or all of which may be greater than the rights of the holders of our common stock.
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Transfer Agent and Registrar
The transfer agent and registrar for our common stock is American Stock Transfer & Trust Company, LLC, with offices at 6201 15th Avenue, Brooklyn, NY 11219.
Stock Exchange Listing
Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbol “DARE.”
DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED STOCK
We are authorized to issue up to 5,000,000 shares of preferred stock, par value $0.01 per share. As of the date of this prospectus, no shares of our preferred stock were outstanding or designated. The following summary of certain provisions of our preferred stock does not purport to be complete. You should refer to our restated certificate of incorporation and restated bylaws, both of which are included as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part. The summary below is also qualified by provisions of applicable law.
General
Our board of directors may, from time to time, direct the issuance of shares of preferred stock in one or more series and may, at the time of issuance, determine the rights, preferences and limitations of each series, including voting rights, dividend rights, conversion rights, redemption privileges and liquidation preferences. Satisfaction of any dividend preferences of outstanding shares of preferred stock would reduce the amount of funds available for the payment of dividends on shares of our common stock. Holders of shares of preferred stock may be entitled to receive a preference payment in the event of any liquidation, dissolution or winding-up of our company before any payment is made to the holders of shares of our common stock. In some circumstances, the issuance of shares of preferred stock may render more difficult or tend to discourage a merger, tender offer or proxy contest, the assumption of control by a holder of a large block of our securities or the removal of incumbent management. Upon the affirmative vote of our board of directors, without stockholder approval, unless and only to the extent stockholder approval is required by the listing standards of any securities exchange on which our securities are listed, we may issue shares of preferred stock with voting and conversion rights which could adversely affect the holders of shares of our common stock.
If we offer a specific series of preferred stock under this prospectus, we will describe the terms of that series of preferred stock in the prospectus supplement for such offering and will file a copy of the amended and restated certificate of incorporation or the certificate of designations establishing the terms of the preferred stock with the SEC. To the extent required, this description will include:
the title and stated value;
the number of shares offered, the liquidation preference, if any, per share and the purchase price;
the dividend rate(s), period(s) and/or payment date(s), or method(s) of calculation for such dividends;
whether dividends will be cumulative or non-cumulative and, if cumulative, the date from which dividends will accumulate;
the procedures for any auction and remarketing, if any;
the provisions for a sinking fund, if any;
the provisions for redemption, if applicable;
any listing of the preferred stock on any securities exchange or market;
whether the preferred stock will be convertible into our common stock, and, if applicable, the conversion price (or how it will be calculated) and conversion period;
whether the preferred stock will be exchangeable into debt securities, and, if applicable, the exchange price (or how it will be calculated) and exchange period;
voting rights, if any, of the preferred stock;
a discussion of any material and/or special U.S. federal income tax considerations applicable to the preferred stock;
the relative ranking and preferences of the preferred stock as to dividend rights and rights upon liquidation, dissolution or winding up of the affairs of our company; and
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any material limitations on issuance of any class or series of preferred stock ranking pari passu with or senior to the series of preferred stock as to dividend rights and rights upon liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our company.
Transfer Agent and Registrar
The transfer agent and registrar for our preferred stock will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.
DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES
The following description, together with the additional information we include in any applicable prospectus supplements, summarizes the material terms and provisions of the debt securities that we may offer under this prospectus. While the terms we have summarized below will apply generally to any future debt securities we may offer pursuant to this prospectus, we will describe the particular terms of any debt securities that we may offer in more detail in the applicable prospectus supplement. If we so indicate in a prospectus supplement, the terms of any debt securities offered under such prospectus supplement may differ from the terms we describe below, and to the extent the terms set forth in a prospectus supplement differ from the terms described below, the terms set forth in the prospectus supplement shall control.
We may sell from time to time, in one or more offerings under this prospectus, debt securities, which may be senior or subordinated. We will issue any such senior debt securities under a senior indenture that we will enter into with a trustee to be named in the senior indenture. We will issue any such subordinated debt securities under a subordinated indenture, which we will enter into with a trustee to be named in the subordinated indenture. We have filed forms of these documents as exhibits to the registration statement, of which this prospectus is a part. We use the term “indentures” to refer to either the senior indenture or the subordinated indenture, as applicable. The indentures will be qualified under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as in effect on the date of the indenture. We use the term “debenture trustee” to refer to either the trustee under the senior indenture or the trustee under the subordinated indenture, as applicable.
The following summaries of material provisions of the senior debt securities, the subordinated debt securities and the indentures are subject to, and qualified in their entirety by reference to, all the provisions of the indenture applicable to a particular series of debt securities.
General
Each indenture provides that debt securities may be issued from time to time in one or more series and may be denominated and payable in foreign currencies or units based on or relating to foreign currencies. Neither indenture limits the amount of debt securities that may be issued thereunder, and each indenture provides that the specific terms of any series of debt securities shall be set forth in, or determined pursuant to, an authorizing resolution and/or a supplemental indenture, if any, relating to such series.
We will describe in each prospectus supplement the following terms relating to a series of debt securities:
the title or designation;
the aggregate principal amount and any limit on the amount that may be issued;
the currency or units based on or relating to currencies in which debt securities of such series are denominated and the currency or units in which principal or interest or both will or may be payable;
whether we will issue the series of debt securities in global form, the terms of any global securities and who the depositary will be;
the maturity date and the date or dates on which principal will be payable;
the interest rate, which may be fixed or variable, or the method for determining the rate and the date interest will begin to accrue, the date or dates interest will be payable and the record dates for interest payment dates or the method for determining such dates;
whether or not the debt securities will be secured or unsecured, and the terms of any secured debt;
the terms of the subordination of any series of subordinated debt;
the place or places where payments will be payable;
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our right, if any, to defer payment of interest and the maximum length of any such deferral period;
the date, if any, after which, and the price at which, we may, at our option, redeem the series of debt securities pursuant to any optional redemption provisions;
the date, if any, on which, and the price at which we are obligated, pursuant to any mandatory sinking fund provisions or otherwise, to redeem, or at the holder’s option to purchase, the series of debt securities;
whether the indenture will restrict our ability to pay dividends, or will require us to maintain any asset ratios or reserves;
whether we will be restricted from incurring any additional indebtedness;
a discussion of any material or special U.S. federal income tax considerations applicable to a series of debt securities;
the denominations in which we will issue the series of debt securities, if other than denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof; and
any other specific terms, preferences, rights or limitations of, or restrictions on, the debt securities.
We may issue debt securities that provide for an amount less than their stated principal amount to be due and payable upon declaration of acceleration of their maturity pursuant to the terms of the indenture. We will provide you with information on the federal income tax considerations and other special considerations applicable to any of these debt securities in the applicable prospectus supplement.
Conversion or Exchange Rights
We will set forth in the prospectus supplement the terms, if any, on which a series of debt securities may be convertible into or exchangeable for our common stock or our other securities. We will include provisions as to whether conversion or exchange is mandatory, at the option of the holder or at our option. We may include provisions pursuant to which the number of shares of our common stock or our other securities that the holders of the series of debt securities receive would be subject to adjustment.
Consolidation, Merger or Sale; No Protection in Event of a Change of Control or Highly Leveraged Transaction
The indentures do not contain any covenant that restricts our ability to merge or consolidate, or sell, convey, transfer or otherwise dispose of all or substantially all of our assets. However, any successor to or acquirer of such assets must assume all of our obligations under the indentures or the debt securities, as appropriate.
Unless we state otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, the debt securities will not contain any provisions that may afford holders of the debt securities protection in the event we have a change of control or in the event of a highly leveraged transaction (whether or not such transaction results in a change of control), which could adversely affect holders of debt securities.
Events of Default Under the Indenture
The following are events of default under the indentures with respect to any series of debt securities that we may issue:
if we fail to pay interest when due and our failure continues for 90 days and the time for payment has not been extended or deferred;
if we fail to pay the principal, or premium, if any, when due and the time for payment has not been extended or delayed;
if we fail to observe or perform any other covenant set forth in the debt securities of such series or the applicable indentures, other than a covenant specifically relating to and for the benefit of holders of another series of debt securities, and our failure continues for 90 days after we receive written notice from the debenture trustee or holders of not less than a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of the applicable series; and
if specified events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization occur as to us.
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No event of default with respect to a particular series of debt securities (except as to certain events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization) necessarily constitutes an event of default with respect to any other series of debt securities. The occurrence of an event of default may constitute an event of default under any bank credit agreements we may have in existence from time to time. In addition, the occurrence of certain events of default or an acceleration under the indenture may constitute an event of default under certain of our other indebtedness outstanding from time to time.
If an event of default with respect to debt securities of any series at the time outstanding occurs and is continuing, then the trustee or the holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series may, by a notice in writing to us (and to the debenture trustee if given by the holders), declare to be due and payable immediately the principal (or, if the debt securities of that series are discount securities, that portion of the principal amount as may be specified in the terms of that series) of and premium and accrued and unpaid interest, if any, on all debt securities of that series. Before a judgment or decree for payment of the money due has been obtained with respect to debt securities of any series, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series (or, at a meeting of holders of such series at which a quorum is present, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the debt securities of such series represented at such meeting) may rescind and annul the acceleration if all events of default, other than the non-payment of accelerated principal, premium, if any, and interest, if any, with respect to debt securities of that series, have been cured or waived as provided in the applicable indenture (including payments or deposits in respect of principal, premium or interest that had become due other than as a result of such acceleration). We refer you to the prospectus supplement relating to any series of debt securities that are discount securities for the particular provisions relating to acceleration of a portion of the principal amount of such discount securities upon the occurrence of an event of default.
Subject to the terms of the indentures, if an event of default under an indenture shall occur and be continuing, the debenture trustee will be under no obligation to exercise any of its rights or powers under such indenture at the request or direction of any of the holders of the applicable series of debt securities, unless such holders have offered the debenture trustee reasonable indemnity. The holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series will have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the debenture trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred on the debenture trustee, with respect to the debt securities of that series, provided that:
the direction so given by the holder is not in conflict with any law or the applicable indenture; and
subject to its duties under the Trust Indenture Act, the debenture trustee need not take any action that might involve it in personal liability or might be unduly prejudicial to the holders not involved in the proceeding.
A holder of the debt securities of any series will only have the right to institute a proceeding under the indentures or to appoint a receiver or trustee, or to seek other remedies if:
the holder previously has given written notice to the debenture trustee of a continuing event of default with respect to that series;
the holders of at least a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series have made written request, and such holders have offered reasonable indemnity to the debenture trustee to institute the proceeding as trustee; and
the debenture trustee does not institute the proceeding, and does not receive from the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series (or at a meeting of holders of such series at which a quorum is present, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the debt securities of such series represented at such meeting) other conflicting directions within 60 days after the notice, request and offer.
These limitations do not apply to a suit instituted by a holder of debt securities if we default in the payment of the principal, premium, if any, or interest on, the debt securities.
We will periodically file statements with the applicable debenture trustee regarding our compliance with specified covenants in the applicable indenture.
Modification of Indenture; Waiver
The debenture trustee and we may change the applicable indenture without the consent of any holders with respect to specific matters, including:
to fix any ambiguity, defect or inconsistency in the indenture; and
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to change anything that does not materially adversely affect the interests of any holder of debt securities of any series issued pursuant to such indenture.
In addition, under the indentures, the rights of holders of a series of debt securities may be changed by us and the debenture trustee with the written consent of the holders of at least a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of each series (or, at a meeting of holders of such series at which a quorum is present, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the debt securities of such series represented at such meeting) that is affected. However, the debenture trustee and we may make the following changes only with the consent of each holder of any outstanding debt securities affected:
extending the fixed maturity of the series of debt securities;
reducing the principal amount, reducing the rate of or extending the time of payment of interest, or any premium payable upon the redemption of any debt securities;
reducing the principal amount of discount securities payable upon acceleration of maturity;
making the principal of or premium or interest on any debt security payable in currency other than that stated in the debt security; or
reducing the percentage of debt securities, the holders of which are required to consent to any amendment or waiver.
Except for certain specified provisions, the holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series (or, at a meeting of holders of such series at which a quorum is present, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the debt securities of such series represented at such meeting) may on behalf of the holders of all debt securities of that series waive our compliance with provisions of the indenture. The holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series may on behalf of the holders of all the debt securities of such series waive any past default under the indenture with respect to that series and its consequences, except a default in the payment of the principal of, premium or any interest on any debt security of that series or in respect of a covenant or provision, which cannot be modified or amended without the consent of the holder of each outstanding debt security of the series affected; provided, however, that the holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series may rescind an acceleration and its consequences, including any related payment default that resulted from the acceleration.
Discharge
Each indenture provides that we can elect to be discharged from our obligations with respect to one or more series of debt securities, except for obligations to:
the transfer or exchange of debt securities of the series;
replace stolen, lost or mutilated debt securities of the series;
maintain paying agencies;
hold monies for payment in trust;
compensate and indemnify the trustee; and
appoint any successor trustee.
In order to exercise our rights to be discharged with respect to a series, we must deposit with the trustee money or government obligations sufficient to pay all the principal of, the premium, if any, and interest on, the debt securities of the series on the dates payments are due.
Form, Exchange, and Transfer
We will issue the debt securities of each series only in fully registered form without coupons and, unless we otherwise specify in the applicable prospectus supplement, in denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof. The indentures provide that we may issue debt securities of a series in temporary or permanent global form and as book-entry securities that will be deposited with, or on behalf of, The Depository Trust Company or another depositary named by us and identified in a prospectus supplement with respect to that series.
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At the option of the holder, subject to the terms of the indentures and the limitations applicable to global securities described in the applicable prospectus supplement, the holder of the debt securities of any series can exchange the debt securities for other debt securities of the same series, in any authorized denomination and of like tenor and aggregate principal amount.
Subject to the terms of the indentures and the limitations applicable to global securities set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement, holders of the debt securities may present the debt securities for exchange or for registration of transfer, duly endorsed or with the form of transfer endorsed thereon duly executed if so required by us or the security registrar, at the office of the security registrar or at the office of any transfer agent designated by us for this purpose. Unless otherwise provided in the debt securities that the holder presents for transfer or exchange or in the applicable indenture, we will make no service charge for any registration of transfer or exchange, but we may require payment of any taxes or other governmental charges.
We will name in the applicable prospectus supplement the security registrar, and any transfer agent in addition to the security registrar, that we initially designate for any debt securities. We may at any time designate additional transfer agents or rescind the designation of any transfer agent or approve a change in the office through which any transfer agent acts, except that we will be required to maintain a transfer agent in each place of payment for the debt securities of each series.
If we elect to redeem the debt securities of any series, we will not be required to:
issue, register the transfer of, or exchange any debt securities of that series during a period beginning at the opening of business 15 days before the day of mailing of a notice of redemption of any debt securities that may be selected for redemption and ending at the close of business on the day of the mailing; or
register the transfer of or exchange any debt securities so selected for redemption, in whole or in part, except the unredeemed portion of any debt securities we are redeeming in part.
Information Concerning the Debenture Trustee
The debenture trustee, other than during the occurrence and continuance of an event of default under the applicable indenture, undertakes to perform only those duties as are specifically set forth in the applicable indenture. Upon an event of default under an indenture, the debenture trustee under such indenture must use the same degree of care as a prudent person would exercise or use in the conduct of his or her own affairs. Subject to this provision, the debenture trustee is under no obligation to exercise any of the powers given it by the indentures at the request of any holder of debt securities unless it is offered reasonable security and indemnity against the costs, expenses and liabilities that it might incur.
Payment and Paying Agents
Unless we otherwise indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will make payment of the interest on any debt securities on any interest payment date to the person in whose name the debt securities, or one or more predecessor securities, are registered at the close of business on the regular record date for the interest.
We will pay principal of and any premium and interest on the debt securities of a particular series at the office of the paying agents designated by us, except that unless we otherwise indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, will we make interest payments by check which we will mail to the holder. Unless we otherwise indicate in a prospectus supplement, we will designate the corporate trust office of the debenture trustee in the City of New York as our sole paying agent for payments with respect to debt securities of each series. We will name in the applicable prospectus supplement any other paying agents that we initially designate for the debt securities of a particular series. We will maintain a paying agent in each place of payment for the debt securities of a particular series.
All money we pay to a paying agent or the debenture trustee for the payment of the principal of or any premium or interest on any debt securities which remains unclaimed at the end of two years after such principal, premium or interest has become due and payable will be repaid to us, and the holder of the security thereafter may look only to us for payment thereof.
Governing Law
The indentures and the debt securities will be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the State of New York, except to the extent that the Trust Indenture Act is applicable.
Subordination of Subordinated Debt Securities
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Our obligations pursuant to any subordinated debt securities will be unsecured and will be subordinate and junior in priority of payment to certain of our other indebtedness to the extent described in a prospectus supplement. The subordinated indenture does not limit the amount of senior indebtedness we may incur. It also does not limit us from issuing any other secured or unsecured debt.
DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS
General
We may issue warrants to purchase shares of our common stock, preferred stock and/or debt securities in one or more series together with other securities or separately, as described in the applicable prospectus supplement. Below is a description of certain general terms and provisions of the warrants that we may offer. Particular terms of the warrants will be described in the warrant agreements and the prospectus supplement relating to the warrants.
The applicable prospectus supplement will contain, where applicable, the following terms of and other information relating to the warrants:
the specific designation and aggregate number of, and the price at which we will issue, the warrants;
the currency or currency units in which the offering price, if any, and the exercise price are payable;
the designation, amount and terms of the securities purchasable upon exercise of the warrants;
if applicable, the exercise price for shares of our common stock and the number of shares of common stock to be received upon exercise of the warrants;
if applicable, the exercise price for shares of our preferred stock, the number of shares of preferred stock to be received upon exercise, and a description of that series of our preferred stock;
if applicable, the exercise price for our debt securities, the amount of debt securities to be received upon exercise, and a description of that series of debt securities;
the date on which the right to exercise the warrants will begin and the date on which that right will expire or, if you may not continuously exercise the warrants throughout that period, the specific date or dates on which you may exercise the warrants;
whether the warrants will be issued in fully registered form or bearer form, in definitive or global form or in any combination of these forms, although, in any case, the form of a warrant included in a unit will correspond to the form of the unit and of any security included in that unit;
any applicable material U.S. federal income tax consequences;
the identity of the warrant agent for the warrants and of any other depositaries, execution or paying agents, transfer agents, registrars or other agents;
the proposed listing, if any, of the warrants or any securities purchasable upon exercise of the warrants on any securities exchange;
if applicable, the date from and after which the warrants and the common stock, preferred stock and/or debt securities will be separately transferable;
if applicable, the minimum or maximum amount of the warrants that may be exercised at any one time;
information with respect to book-entry procedures, if any;
the anti-dilution provisions of the warrants, if any;
any redemption or call provisions;
whether the warrants may be sold separately or with other securities as parts of units; and
any additional terms of the warrants, including terms, procedures and limitations relating to the exchange and exercise of the warrants.
Transfer Agent and Registrar
The transfer agent and registrar for any warrants will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.
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DESCRIPTION OF RIGHTS
General
We may issue rights to our stockholders to purchase shares of our common stock, preferred stock or the other securities described in this prospectus. We may offer rights separately or together with one or more additional rights, debt securities, preferred stock, common stock, warrants or purchase contracts, or any combination of those securities in the form of units, as described in the applicable prospectus supplement. Each series of rights will be issued under a separate rights agreement to be entered into between us and a bank or trust company, as rights agent. The rights agent will act solely as our agent in connection with the certificates relating to the rights of the series of certificates and will not assume any obligation or relationship of agency or trust for or with any holders of rights certificates or beneficial owners of rights. The following description sets forth certain general terms and provisions of the rights to which any prospectus supplement may relate. The particular terms of the rights to which any prospectus supplement may relate and the extent, if any, to which the general provisions may apply to the rights so offered will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement. To the extent that any particular terms of the rights, rights agreement or rights certificates described in a prospectus supplement differ from any of the terms described below, then the terms described below will be deemed to have been superseded by that prospectus supplement. We encourage you to read the applicable rights agreement and rights certificate for additional information before you decide whether to purchase any of our rights. We will provide in a prospectus supplement the following terms of the rights being issued:
the date of determining the stockholders entitled to the rights distribution;
the aggregate number of shares of common stock, preferred stock or other securities purchasable upon exercise of the rights;
the exercise price;
the aggregate number of rights issued;
whether the rights are transferrable and the date, if any, on and after which the rights may be separately transferred;
the date on which the right to exercise the rights will commence, and the date on which the right to exercise the rights will expire;
the method by which holders of rights will be entitled to exercise;
the conditions to the completion of the offering, if any;
the withdrawal, termination and cancellation rights, if any;
whether there are any backstop or standby purchaser or purchasers and the terms of their commitment, if any;
whether stockholders are entitled to oversubscription rights, if any;
any applicable material U.S. federal income tax considerations; and
any other terms of the rights, including terms, procedures and limitations relating to the distribution, exchange and exercise of the rights, as applicable.
Each right will entitle the holder of rights to purchase for cash the principal amount of shares of common stock, preferred stock or other securities at the exercise price provided in the applicable prospectus supplement. Rights may be exercised at any time up to the close of business on the expiration date for the rights provided in the applicable prospectus supplement.
Holders may exercise rights as described in the applicable prospectus supplement. Upon receipt of payment and the rights certificate properly completed and duly executed at the corporate trust office of the rights agent or any other office indicated in the prospectus supplement, we will, as soon as practicable, forward the shares of common stock, preferred stock or other securities, as applicable, purchasable upon exercise of the rights. If less than all of the rights issued in any rights offering are exercised, we may offer any unsubscribed securities directly to persons other than stockholders, to or through agents, underwriters or dealers or through a combination of such methods, including pursuant to standby arrangements, as described in the applicable prospectus supplement.
Rights Agent
The rights agent for any rights we offer will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.
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DESCRIPTION OF PURCHASE CONTRACTS
We may issue purchase contracts, including contracts obligating holders to purchase from us, and for us to sell to holders, a specific or variable number of our debt securities, shares of common stock, preferred stock, warrants or rights, or securities of an entity unaffiliated with us, or any combination of the above, at a future date or dates. Alternatively, the purchase contracts may obligate us to purchase from holders, and obligate holders to sell to us, a specific or variable number of our debt securities, shares of common stock, preferred stock, warrants, rights or other property, or any combination of the above. The price of the securities or other property subject to the purchase contracts may be fixed at the time the purchase contracts are issued or may be determined by reference to a specific formula described in the purchase contracts. We may issue purchase contracts separately or as a part of units each consisting of a purchase contract and one or more of our other securities described in this prospectus or securities of third parties, including U.S. Treasury securities, securing the holder’s obligations under the purchase contract. The purchase contracts may require us to make periodic payments to holders or vice versa and the payments may be unsecured or pre-funded on some basis. The purchase contracts may require holders to secure the holder’s obligations in a manner specified in the applicable prospectus supplement.
The applicable prospectus supplement will describe the terms of any purchase contracts in respect of which this prospectus is being delivered, including, to the extent applicable, the following:
whether the purchase contracts obligate the holder or us to purchase or sell, or both purchase and sell, the securities subject to purchase under the purchase contract, and the nature and amount of each of those securities, or the method of determining those amounts;
whether the purchase contracts are to be prepaid;
whether the purchase contracts are to be settled by delivery, or by reference or linkage to the value, performance or level of the securities subject to purchase under the purchase contract;
any acceleration, cancellation, termination or other provisions relating to the settlement of the purchase contracts;
any applicable material U.S. federal income tax considerations; and
whether the purchase contracts will be issued in fully registered or global form.
The preceding description sets forth certain general terms and provisions of the purchase contracts to which any prospectus supplement may relate. The particular terms of the purchase contracts to which any prospectus supplement may relate and the extent, if any, to which the general provisions may apply to the purchase contracts so offered will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement. To the extent that any particular terms of the purchase contracts described in a prospectus supplement differ from any of the terms described above, then the terms described above will be deemed to have been superseded by that prospectus supplement.
We encourage you to read the applicable purchase contract for additional information before you decide whether to purchase any of our purchase contracts.
DESCRIPTION OF UNITS
The following description, together with the additional information that we include in any applicable prospectus supplements summarizes the material terms and provisions of the units that we may offer under this prospectus. While the terms we have summarized below will apply generally to any units that we may offer under this prospectus, we will describe the particular terms of any series of units in more detail in the applicable prospectus supplement. The terms of any units offered under a prospectus supplement may differ from the terms described below.
We will incorporate by reference from reports that we file with the SEC, the form of unit agreement that describes the terms of the series of units we are offering, and any supplemental agreements, before the issuance of the related series of units. The following summaries of material terms and provisions of the units are subject to, and qualified in their entirety by reference to, all the provisions of the unit agreement and any supplemental agreements applicable to a particular series of units. We urge you to read the applicable prospectus supplements related to the particular series of units that we may offer under this prospectus, as well as any related free writing prospectuses and the complete unit agreement and any supplemental agreements that contain the terms of the units.
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General
We may issue units consisting of common stock, preferred stock, one or more debt securities, warrants, rights or purchase contacts for the purchase of common stock, preferred stock and/or debt securities in one or more series, in any combination. Each unit will be issued so that the holder of the unit is also the holder of each security included in the unit. Thus, the holder of a unit will have the rights and obligations of a holder of each security included in the unit. The unit agreement under which a unit is issued may provide that the securities included in the unit may not be held or transferred separately, at any time or at any time before a specified date.
We will describe in the applicable prospectus supplement the terms of the series of units being offered, including:
the designation and terms of the units and of the securities comprising the units, including whether and under what circumstances those securities may be held or transferred separately;
any provisions of the governing unit agreement that differ from those described below; and
any provisions for the issuance, payment, settlement, transfer or exchange of the units or of the securities comprising the units.
The provisions described in this section, as well as those set forth in any prospectus supplement or as described under “Description of Common Stock,” “Description of Preferred Stock,” “Description of Debt Securities,” “Description of Warrants,” “Description of Rights” and “Description of Purchase Contracts” will apply to each unit, as applicable, and to any common stock, preferred stock, debt security, warrant, right or purchase contract included in each unit, as applicable.
Unit Agent
The name and address of the unit agent for any units we offer will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.
Issuance in Series
We may issue units in such amounts and in such numerous distinct series as we determine.
Enforceability of Rights by Holders of Units
Each unit agent will act solely as our agent under the applicable unit agreement and will not assume any obligation or relationship of agency or trust with any holder of any unit. A single bank or trust company may act as unit agent for more than one series of units. A unit agent will have no duty or responsibility in case of any default by us under the applicable unit agreement or unit, including any duty or responsibility to initiate any proceedings at law or otherwise, or to make any demand upon us. Any holder of a unit may, without the consent of the related unit agent or the holder of any other unit, enforce by appropriate legal action its rights as holder under any security included in the unit.

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FORMS OF SECURITIES
Each debt security, warrant, purchase contract and unit will be represented either by a certificate issued in definitive form to a particular investor or by one or more global securities representing the entire issuance of securities. Definitive securities name you or your nominee as the owner of the security, and in order to transfer or exchange these securities or to receive payments other than interest or other interim payments, you or your nominee must physically deliver the securities to the trustee, registrar, paying agent or other agent, as applicable. Global securities name a depositary or its nominee as the owner of the debt securities, warrants, purchase contracts or units represented by these global securities. The depositary maintains a computerized system that will reflect each investor’s beneficial ownership of the securities through an account maintained by the investor with its broker/dealer, bank, trust company or other representative, as we explain more fully below.
Global Securities
We may issue our debt securities, warrants, purchase contracts and units in the form of one or more fully registered global securities that will be deposited with a depositary or its nominee identified in the applicable prospectus supplement and registered in the name of that depositary or nominee. In those cases, one or more global securities will be issued in a denomination or aggregate denominations equal to the portion of the aggregate principal or face amount of the securities to be represented by global securities. Unless and until it is exchanged in whole for securities in definitive registered form, a global security may not be transferred except as a whole by and among the depositary for the global security, the nominees of the depositary or any successors of the depositary or those nominees.
If not described below, any specific terms of the depositary arrangement with respect to any securities to be represented by a global security will be described in the prospectus supplement relating to those securities. We anticipate that the following provisions will apply to all depositary arrangements.
Ownership of beneficial interests in a global security will be limited to persons, called participants, that have accounts with the depositary or persons that may hold interests through participants. Upon the issuance of a global security, the depositary will credit, on its book-entry registration and transfer system, the participants’ accounts with the respective principal or face amounts of the securities beneficially owned by the participants. Any dealers, underwriters or agents participating in the distribution of the securities will designate the accounts to be credited. Ownership of beneficial interests in a global security will be shown on, and the transfer of ownership interests will be effected only through, records maintained by the depositary, with respect to interests of participants, and on the records of participants, with respect to interests of persons holding through participants. The laws of some states may require that some purchasers of securities take physical delivery of these securities in definitive form. These laws may impair your ability to own, transfer or pledge beneficial interests in global securities.
So long as the depositary, or its nominee, is the registered owner of a global security, that depositary or its nominee, as the case may be, will be considered the sole owner or holder of the securities represented by the global security for all purposes under the applicable indenture, warrant agreement, purchase contract or unit agreement. Except as described below, owners of beneficial interests in a global security will not be entitled to have the securities represented by the global security registered in their names, will not receive or be entitled to receive physical delivery of the securities in definitive form and will not be considered the owners or holders of the securities under the applicable indenture, warrant agreement, purchase contract or unit agreement. Accordingly, each person owning a beneficial interest in a global security must rely on the procedures of the depositary for that global security and, if that person is not a participant, on the procedures of the participant through which the person owns its interest, to exercise any rights of a holder under the applicable indenture, warrant agreement, purchase contract or unit agreement. We understand that under existing industry practices, if we request any action of holders or if an owner of a beneficial interest in a global security desires to give or take any action that a holder is entitled to give or take under the applicable indenture, warrant agreement, purchase contract or unit agreement, the depositary for the global security would authorize the participants holding the relevant beneficial interests to give or take that action, and the participants would authorize beneficial owners owning through them to give or take that action or would otherwise act upon the instructions of beneficial owners holding through them.
Principal, premium, if any, and interest payments on debt securities, and any payments to holders with respect to warrants or units, represented by a global security registered in the name of a depositary or its nominee will be made to the depositary or its nominee, as the case may be, as the registered owner of the global security. None of us, or any trustee, warrant agent, unit agent or other agent of ours, or any agent of any trustee, warrant agent or unit agent will have any responsibility or liability for any aspect of the records relating to payments made on account of beneficial ownership interests in the global security or for maintaining, supervising or reviewing any records relating to those beneficial ownership interests.
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We expect that the depositary for any of the securities represented by a global security, upon receipt of any payment to holders of principal, premium, interest or other distribution of underlying securities or other property on that registered global security, will immediately credit participants’ accounts in amounts proportionate to their respective beneficial interests in that global security as shown on the records of the depositary. We also expect that payments by participants to owners of beneficial interests in a global security held through participants will be governed by standing customer instructions and customary practices, as is now the case with the securities held for the accounts of customers or registered in “street name,” and will be the responsibility of those participants.
If the depositary for any of the securities represented by a global security is at any time unwilling or unable to continue as depositary or ceases to be a clearing agency registered under the Exchange Act, and a successor depositary registered as a clearing agency under the Exchange Act is not appointed by us within 90 days, we will issue securities in definitive form in exchange for the global security that had been held by the depositary. Any securities issued in definitive form in exchange for a global security will be registered in the name or names that the depositary gives to the relevant trustee, warrant agent, unit agent or other relevant agent of ours or theirs. It is expected that the depositary’s instructions will be based upon directions received by the depositary from participants with respect to ownership of beneficial interests in the global security that had been held by the depositary.

CERTAIN PROVISIONS OF DELAWARE LAW AND OF OUR CERTIFICATE OF INCORPORATION AND BYLAWS
Anti-Takeover Effect Provisions
Certain provisions in our restated certificate of incorporation and our restated bylaws and applicable provisions under the Delaware General Corporation Law, or the DGCL, may have an anti-takeover effect, including:
Classified Board. We have a classified board of directors with three-year staggered terms, which may delay the ability of stockholders to change the composition of a majority of our board of directors.
Number of Directors. The number of directors on our board of directors is established by our board of directors, which may delay the ability of stockholders to change the composition of a majority of our board of directors.
No Cumulative Voting. Our stockholders cannot cumulate their votes in the election of directors, which limits the ability of minority stockholders to elect director candidates.
Filling of Vacancies. Our board of directors have the exclusive right to elect a director to fill any vacancy or newly created directorship.
Removing Directors. A director may be removed only for cause and only by the affirmative vote of at least 75% of the votes which all the stockholders would be entitled to cast in any annual election of directors or class of directors.
Prohibition on Written Consent. Our stockholders are prohibited from acting by written consent, which forces stockholder action to be taken at an annual or special meeting of our stockholders.
Calling Special Meetings. Special meetings of our stockholders may be called only by our board of directors, the chairman of our board of directors or our chief executive officer, which may delay the ability of our stockholders to force consideration of a proposal or to take action, including the removal of directors.
Advance Notice Procedures. Stockholders must comply with the advance notice procedures in our restated bylaws to nominate candidates to our board of directors and to propose matters to be acted upon at a stockholders’ meeting, which may discourage or deter a potential acquirer from soliciting proxies to elect the acquirer’s own slate of directors or otherwise attempting to obtain control of us;
Supermajority Provisions. The affirmative vote of the holders of at least 75% of the votes which all the stockholders would be entitled to cast in any annual election of directors or class of directors is required to amend or repeal, or to adopt any provision inconsistent with, the provisions in our restated certificate of incorporation that relate to, among other matters, the classification of our board of directors, the number of our directors, the removal of our directors, the filling of vacancies on our board of directors, the prohibition on our stockholders to act by written consent, and the calling of special meetings of our stockholders.
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Bylaw Amendments. Our board of directors, by majority vote, may amend, alter or repeal our restated bylaws and may adopt new bylaws. Our stockholders may not adopt, amend, alter or repeal our restated bylaws or adopt any provision inconsistent therewith, unless such action is approved, in addition to any vote required by our restated certificate of incorporation, by the affirmative vote of holders of at least 75% of the votes that all the stockholders would be entitled to cast in any annual election of directors or class of directors, and the affirmative vote of holders of at least 75% of the votes that all the stockholders would be entitled to cast in any annual election of directors or class of directors is required to amend or repeal, or to adopt any provision inconsistent with, the foregoing. These provisions may inhibit the ability of an acquirer from amending our restated certificate of incorporation or our restated bylaws to facilitate a hostile acquisition and may allow our board of directors to take additional actions to prevent a hostile acquisition.
Preferred Stock. Our board of directors can determine to issue shares of preferred stock and to determine the price and other terms of those shares, including preferences and voting rights, without stockholder approval, which could significantly dilute the ownership of a hostile acquirer.
Additional Authorized Shares of Capital Stock. The shares of authorized common stock and preferred stock available for issuance under our restated certificate of incorporation could be issued at such times, under such circumstances, and with such terms as to impede a change in control.
DGCL Section 203. We are subject to Section 203 of the DGCL, which, subject to certain exceptions, prohibits a Delaware corporation from engaging in any “business combination” with any “interested stockholder” for three years following the date that such stockholder became an interested stockholder, unless: (i) before such date, the board of directors of the corporation approved either the business combination or the transaction that resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder; (ii) on consummation of the transaction that resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder, the interested stockholder owned at least 85% of the voting stock of the corporation outstanding at the time the transaction commenced, excluding for purposes of determining the number of shares outstanding those shares owned (a) by persons who are directors and also officers and (b) by employee stock plans in which employee participants do not have the right to determine confidentially whether shares held subject to the plan will be tendered in a tender or exchange offer; or (iii) on or after such date, the business combination is approved by the board of directors and authorized at an annual or special meeting of stockholders, and not by written consent, by the affirmative vote of at least 66 2⁄3% of the outstanding voting stock not owned by the interested stockholder.
The term "business combination" generally includes mergers or consolidations resulting in a financial benefit to the interested stockholder. The term "interested stockholder" generally means any person, other than the corporation and any direct or indirect majority-owned subsidiary of the corporation, who, together with affiliates and associates, owns (or owned within three years prior to the determination of interested stockholder status) 15% or more of the outstanding voting stock of the corporation. The provisions of Section 203 of the DGCL may deter a hostile takeover or delay a change in control.
Choice of Forum
Our restated bylaws provide that, among other things, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the courts located within the State of Delaware will serve as the exclusive forum for the adjudication of (i) any derivative action or proceeding brought on behalf of us; (ii) any action or proceeding asserting a claim of breach of a fiduciary duty owed by any current or former director, officer or other employee of ours, to us or our stockholders; (iii) any action or proceeding asserting a claim against us or any current or former director, officer or other employee of ours, arising out of or pursuant to any provision of the DGCL, our restated certificate of incorporation or our restated bylaws (as each may be amended from time to time); (iv) any action or proceeding to interpret, apply, enforce or determine the validity of our restated certificate of incorporation or our restated bylaws (including any right, obligation, or remedy thereunder); (v) any action or proceeding as to which the DGCL confers jurisdiction to the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware; and (vi) any action asserting a claim against us or any director, officer or other employee of ours, governed by the internal affairs doctrine, in all cases to the fullest extent permitted by law and subject to the court’s having personal jurisdiction over the indispensable parties named as defendants. This choice of forum provision will not apply to actions or suits brought to enforce a duty or liability created by the Securities Act, the Exchange Act, or any other claim for which the federal courts have exclusive jurisdiction. In addition, our restated bylaws provide that, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, to the fullest extent permitted by law, the federal district courts of the United States of America shall be the sole exclusive forum for the resolution of any complaint asserting a cause of action arising under the Securities Act.
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We believe these choice of forum provisions may benefit us by providing increased consistency in the application of Delaware law and federal securities laws by chancellors and judges, as applicable, particularly experienced in resolving corporate disputes, efficient administration of cases on a more expedited schedule relative to other forums and protection against the burdens of multi-forum litigation. These provisions may have the effect of discouraging lawsuits against us and/or our directors, officers and employees as they may limit a stockholder’s ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum that the stockholder finds favorable for disputes with us or our directors, officers or employees.
Limitation of Liability and Indemnification
Section 102 of the DGCL permits a corporation to eliminate the personal liability of its directors to the corporation or its stockholders for monetary damages for a breach of fiduciary duty as a director, except (i) for any breach of the director's duty of loyalty to the corporation or its stockholders; (ii) for acts or omissions not in good faith or which involve intentional misconduct or a knowing violation of law; (iii) for any willful or negligent violation of sections of the DGCL related to the declaration and payment of dividends and to the purchase or redemption of the corporation’s capital stock; or (iv) for any transaction from which the director derived an improper personal benefit.
Our restated certificate of incorporation provides that no director of our corporation shall be personally liable to us or our stockholders for monetary damages for any breach of fiduciary duty as a director, notwithstanding any provision of law imposing such liability, except to the extent that the DGCL prohibits the elimination or limitation of liability of directors for breaches of fiduciary duty.
Our restated certificate of incorporation provides that we will indemnify each individual who was or is a party or threatened to be made a party to any threatened, pending or completed action, suit or proceeding, whether civil, criminal, administrative or investigative (other than an action by or in the right of us), by reason of the fact that such individual is or was, or has agreed to become, our director or officer, or is or was serving, or has agreed to serve, at our request as a director, officer, partner, employee or trustee of, or in a similar capacity with, another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise (all such individuals being referred to as an Indemnitee), or by reason of any action alleged to have been taken or omitted in such capacity, against all expenses (including attorneys’ fees), judgments, fines and amounts paid in settlement actually and reasonably incurred in connection with such action, suit or proceeding and any appeal therefrom if such Indemnitee acted in good faith and in a manner the Indemnitee reasonably believed to be in, or not opposed to, our best interests, and, with respect to any criminal action or proceeding, such Indemnitee had no reasonable cause to believe the Indemnitee’s conduct was unlawful.
Our restated certificate of incorporation also provides that we will indemnify any Indemnitee who was or is a party to an action or suit by or in the right of us to procure a judgment in our favor by reason of the fact that the Indemnitee is or was, or has agreed to become, our director or officer, or is or was serving, or has agreed to serve, at our request as a director, officer, partner, employee or trustee or, or in a similar capacity with, another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise, or by reason of any action alleged to have been taken or omitted in such capacity, against all expenses (including attorneys’ fees) and, to the extent permitted by law, amounts paid in settlement actually and reasonably incurred by Indemnitee in connection with such action, suit or proceeding and any appeal therefrom, if the Indemnitee acted in good faith and in a manner which the Indemnitee reasonably believed to be in, or not opposed to, our best interests, except that no indemnification shall be made in respect of any claim, issue or matter as to which the Indemnitee shall have been adjudged to be liable to us, unless, and only to the extent, that the Court of Chancery of Delaware or the court in which such action or suit was brought shall determine upon application that, despite the adjudication of such liability but in view of all the circumstances of the case, the Indemnitee is fairly and reasonably entitled to indemnity for such expenses (including attorneys’ fees) which the Court of Chancery of Delaware or such other court shall deem proper. Notwithstanding the foregoing, to the extent that any Indemnitee has been successful, on the merits or otherwise, such Indemnitee will be indemnified by us against all expenses (including attorneys’ fees) actually and reasonably incurred by or on behalf of the Indemnitee in connection therewith. Without limiting the foregoing, if any action, suit or proceeding is disposed of, on the merits or otherwise (including a disposition without prejudice), without (i) the disposition being adverse to the Indemnitee, (ii) an adjudication that the Indemnitee was liable to us, (iii) a plea of guilty or nolo contendere by the Indemnitee, (iv) an adjudication that the Indemnitee did not act in good faith and in a manner the Indemnitee reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to our best interests, and (v) with respect to any criminal proceeding, an adjudication that Indemnitee had reasonable cause to believe his or her conduct was unlawful, the Indemnitee shall be considered for the purposes hereof to have been wholly successful with respect thereto. If we do not assume the defense, expenses must be advanced to an Indemnitee under certain circumstances.
27


Section 145 of the DGCL provides that a corporation has the power to indemnify a director, officer, employee, or agent of the corporation, or a person serving at the request of the corporation for another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise in related capacities against expenses, including attorneys’ fees, judgments, fines and amounts paid in settlement actually and reasonably incurred by the person in connection with an action, suit or proceeding to which such individual was or is a party or is threatened to be made a party to any threatened, ending or completed action, suit or proceeding by reason of such position, if such individual acted in good faith and in a manner the individual reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the corporation, and, in any criminal action or proceeding, had no reasonable cause to believe such individual’s conduct was unlawful, except that, in the case of actions brought by or in the right of the corporation, no indemnification shall be made with respect to any claim, issue or matter as to which such individual shall have been adjudged to be liable to the corporation unless and only to the extent that the Court of Chancery or other adjudicating court determines that, despite the adjudication of liability but in view of all of the circumstances of the case, such individual is fairly and reasonably entitled to indemnity for such expenses which the Court of Chancery or such other court shall deem proper.
We have entered into indemnification agreements with our directors and certain officers, in addition to the indemnification provided in our restated certificate of incorporation, and intend to enter into indemnification agreements with any new directors and executive officers in the future. In general, these agreements provide that we will indemnify the director or officer to the fullest extent permitted by law for claims arising in such individual’s capacity as a director or officer of our company or in connection with their service at our request for another corporation or entity. The indemnification agreements also provide for procedures that will apply in the event that the director or officer makes a claim for indemnification and establish certain presumptions that are favorable to the director or officer, as applicable.
We have purchased and intend to maintain insurance on behalf of any individual who is or was a director or officer against any loss arising from any claim asserted against such individual and incurred by the individual in any such capacity, subject to certain exclusions.
The foregoing discussion of our restated certificate of incorporation, restated bylaws, indemnification agreements and Delaware law is not intended to be exhaustive and is qualified in its entirety by such documents or law.
Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act may be permitted to our directors, officers and controlling persons pursuant to the foregoing provisions, or otherwise, we have been advised that in the opinion of the SEC such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is, therefore, unenforceable.
Dissenter’s Rights of Appraisal and Payment
Under the DGCL, with certain exceptions, our stockholders have appraisal rights in connection with a merger or consolidation of our company. Under the DGCL, stockholders who properly request and perfect appraisal rights in connection with such merger or consolidation will have the right to receive payment of the fair value of their shares as determined by the Delaware Court of Chancery.
LEGAL MATTERS
Mintz, Levin, Cohn, Ferris, Glovsky and Popeco, P.C., San Diego, California, will pass upon certain legal matters in connection with the offering and validity of the securities offered by this prospectus.
EXPERTS
Mayer Hoffman McCann P.C., an independent registered public accounting firm, has audited our consolidated financial statements included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020, as set forth in its report, which is incorporated by reference in this prospectus and the registration statement. Our financial statements are incorporated by reference in reliance on Mayer Hoffman McCann P.C.’s report, given on the authority of said firm as experts in accounting and auditing.
28



WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION
We are subject to the reporting requirements of the Exchange Act and file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. The SEC maintains an internet site that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information regarding issuers, such as our company, that file documents electronically with the SEC. Our SEC filings are available to the public at the SEC’s website address at http://www.sec.gov. The information on the SEC’s website is not part of this prospectus, and any references to the SEC’s website or any other website are inactive textual references only.
We also maintain a website at www.darebioscience.com, through which you can access our SEC filings. The information set forth on our website is not part of this prospectus. We have included our website address in this prospectus solely as an inactive textual reference.
This prospectus is only part of a registration statement on Form S-3 that we filed with the SEC. This prospectus omits some information contained in the registration statement in accordance with the SEC rules and regulations. You should review the information in and schedules and/or exhibits to the registration statement for further information about us and the securities being offered pursuant to this prospectus. Statements in this prospectus concerning any document we filed as an exhibit or schedule to the registration statement or that we otherwise filed with the SEC are not intended to be comprehensive and are qualified by reference to these filings. You should review the complete document to evaluate these statements.
INCORPORATION OF DOCUMENTS BY REFERENCE
The SEC allows us to “incorporate by reference” into this prospectus the information that we file with the SEC, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to those publicly available documents. The information that we incorporate by reference is an important part of this prospectus. This prospectus incorporates by reference the documents listed below:
our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020, filed with the SEC on March 30, 2021 (the “Annual Report”), including all material incorporated by reference therein;
our Current Reports on Form 8-K and on Form 8-K/A filed with the SEC on January 11, 2021, February 1, 2021, February 16, 2021, and March 8, 2021 (except for any information furnished under Items 2.02 or 7.01 of Form 8-K and all exhibits related to such items); and
the description of our common stock contained in our Registration Statement on Form 8-A filed on April 4, 2014, including any amendments thereto or reports filed for the purpose of updating such description, including the description of our common stock in Exhibit 4.6 of the Annual Report.
The SEC file number for each of the documents listed above is 001-36395.
In addition, all documents filed by us with the SEC pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 and 15(d) of the Exchange Act after the date of this prospectus and prior to the termination of this offering shall be deemed to be incorporated by reference into this prospectus and to be a part hereof from the date of filing such reports and other documents (excluding any information in such documents furnished under Item 2.02 or Item 7.01 of any Current Report on Form 8-K and any exhibit furnished with such reports that is related to those items). We also specifically incorporate by reference into this prospectus all documents filed by us with the SEC pursuant to Section 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act after the date of the initial registration statement of which this prospectus is a part and prior to effectiveness of the registration statement (excluding any information in such documents that is furnished under Item 2.02 or Item 7.01 of any Current Report on Form 8-K and any exhibit furnished with such reports that is related to those items).
Any statement contained in this prospectus or in a document incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference into this prospectus will be deemed to be modified or superseded for purposes of this prospectus to the extent that a statement contained in this prospectus or any other subsequently filed document that is deemed to be incorporated by reference into this prospectus modifies or supersedes the statement. Any statement so modified or superseded will not be deemed, except as so modified or superseded, to constitute a part of this prospectus.
We will provide to each person, including any beneficial owner, to whom this prospectus is delivered, upon written or oral request and at no cost to the requester, a copy of any or all reports or documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus, but not delivered with the prospectus. Such written or oral requests should be directed to:
29


Daré Bioscience, Inc.
3655 Nobel Drive, Suite 260
San Diego, CA 92122
Attn: Chief Financial Officer
Telephone: (858) 926-7655
You may also access these documents on our website, www.darebioscience.com. The information contained on, or that can be accessed through, our website is not a part of this prospectus. We have included our website address in this prospectus solely as an inactive textual reference.
30









DARÉ BIOSCIENCE, INC.
https://cdn.kscope.io/3737b6a2f9a69fb600dbdeb3433332bd-darebioinlinefullcolorrgbab.jpg
$200,000,000
Common Stock
Preferred Stock
Debt Securities
Warrants
Rights
Purchase Contracts
Units


________________________________________
PROSPECTUS
________________________________________
       

________________________________________

, 2021




PART II
INFORMATION NOT REQUIRED IN PROSPECTUS
Item 14. Other Expenses of Issuance and Distribution
The following table sets forth the fees and expenses incurred or expected to be incurred by us in connection with the sale and issuance of the securities being registered hereby. Other than the SEC registration fee, the amounts stated are estimates.
SEC registration fee$18,470 
FINRA filing fees*
Legal fees and expenses*
Accounting fees and expenses*
Transfer agent and registrar fees*
Trustee fees and expenses *
Miscellaneous*
Total$*
*These fees or expenses cannot be estimated at this time, as they are determined based on the securities offered and the number of issuances. An estimate of the aggregate expenses in connection with the sale and distribution of the securities being offered will be included in the applicable prospectus supplement.
Item 15. Indemnification of Directors and Officers
Delaware Law
Section 102 of the Delaware General Corporation Law, or DGCL, permits a corporation to eliminate the personal liability of directors of a corporation to the corporation or its stockholders for monetary damages for a breach of fiduciary duty as a director, except where the director breached his duty of loyalty, failed to act in good faith, engaged in intentional misconduct or knowingly violated a law, authorized the payment of a dividend or approved a stock repurchase in violation of Delaware corporate law or obtained an improper personal benefit.
Section 145 of the DGCL provides that a corporation has the power to indemnify a director, officer, employee, or agent of the corporation, or a person serving at the request of the corporation for another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise in related capacities against expenses, including attorneys’ fees, judgments, fines and amounts paid in settlement actually and reasonably incurred by the person in connection with an action, suit or proceeding to which he was or is a party or is threatened to be made a party to any threatened, ending or completed action, suit or proceeding by reason of such position, if such person acted in good faith and in a manner he reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the corporation, and, in any criminal action or proceeding, had no reasonable cause to believe his conduct was unlawful, except that, in the case of actions brought by or in the right of the corporation, no indemnification shall be made with respect to any claim, issue or matter as to which such person shall have been adjudged to be liable to the corporation unless and only to the extent that the Court of Chancery or other adjudicating court determines that, despite the adjudication of liability but in view of all of the circumstances of the case, such person is fairly and reasonably entitled to indemnity for such expenses which the Court of Chancery or such other court shall deem proper.
Restated Certificate of Incorporation
Our Restated Certificate of Incorporation, as amended, referred to herein as our restated certificate of incorporation, provides that no director of our corporation shall be personally liable to us or our stockholders for monetary damages for any breach of fiduciary duty as a director, notwithstanding any provision of law imposing such liability, except to the extent that the DGCL prohibits the elimination or limitation of liability of directors for breaches of fiduciary duty.
32


In addition, our restated certificate of incorporation provides that we will indemnify each individual who was or is a party or threatened to be made a party to any threatened, pending or completed action, suit or proceeding, whether civil, criminal, administrative or investigative (other than an action by or in the right of us), by reason of the fact that such individual is or was, or has agreed to become, our director or officer, or is or was serving, or has agreed to serve, at our request as a director, officer, partner, employee or trustee of, or in a similar capacity with, another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise (all such individuals being referred to as an Indemnitee), or by reason of any action alleged to have been taken or omitted in such capacity, against all expenses (including attorneys’ fees), judgments, fines and amounts paid in settlement actually and reasonably incurred in connection with such action, suit or proceeding and any appeal therefrom if such Indemnitee acted in good faith and in a manner the Indemnitee reasonably believed to be in, or not opposed to, our best interests, and, with respect to any criminal action or proceeding, such Indemnitee had no reasonable cause to believe the Indemnitee's conduct was unlawful.
Our restated certificate of incorporation also provides that we will indemnify any Indemnitee who was or is a party to an action or suit by or in the right of us to procure a judgment in our favor by reason of the fact that the Indemnitee is or was, or has agreed to become, our director or officer, or is or was serving, or has agreed to serve, at our request as a director, officer, partner, employee or trustee or, or in a similar capacity with, another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise, or by reason of any action alleged to have been taken or omitted in such capacity, against all expenses (including attorneys’ fees) and, to the extent permitted by law, amounts paid in settlement actually and reasonably incurred by Indemnitee in connection with such action, suit or proceeding and any appeal therefrom, if the Indemnitee acted in good faith and in a manner which the Indemnitee reasonably believed to be in, or not opposed to, our best interests, except that no indemnification shall be made in respect of any claim, issue or matter as to which the Indemnitee shall have been adjudged to be liable to us, unless, and only to the extent, that the Court of Chancery of Delaware or the court in which such action or suit was brought shall determine upon application that, despite the adjudication of such liability but in view of all the circumstances of the case, the Indemnitee is fairly and reasonably entitled to indemnity for such expenses (including attorneys’ fees) which the Court of Chancery of Delaware or such other court shall deem proper. Notwithstanding the foregoing, to the extent that any Indemnitee has been successful, on the merits or otherwise, such Indemnitee will be indemnified by us against all expenses (including attorneys’ fees) actually and reasonably incurred by or on behalf of the Indemnitee in connection therewith. Without limiting the foregoing, if any action, suit or proceeding is disposed of, on the merits or otherwise (including a disposition without prejudice), without (i) the disposition being adverse to the Indemnitee, (ii) an adjudication that the Indemnitee was liable to us, (iii) a plea of guilty or nolo contendere by the Indemnitee, (iv) an adjudication that the Indemnitee did not act in good faith and in a manner the Indemnitee reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to our best interests, and (v) with respect to any criminal proceeding, an adjudication that Indemnitee had reasonable cause to believe his or her conduct was unlawful, the Indemnitee shall be considered for the purposes hereof to have been wholly successful with respect thereto. If we do not assume the defense, expenses must be advanced to an Indemnitee under certain circumstances.
Indemnification Agreements
We have entered into indemnification agreements with our directors and executive officers. In general, these agreements provide that we will indemnify the director or executive officer to the fullest extent permitted by law for claims arising in his or her capacity as a director or officer of our company or in connection with their service at our request for another corporation or entity. The indemnification agreements also provide for procedures that will apply in the event that a director or executive officer makes a claim for indemnification and establish certain presumptions that are favorable to the director or executive officer.
We maintain a general liability insurance policy that covers certain liabilities of directors and officers of our corporation arising out of claims based on acts or omissions in their capacities as directors or officers.
Insofar as the forgoing provisions permit indemnification of our directors and officers, or persons controlling us, for liability arising under the Securities Act of 1933 we have been informed that, in the opinion of the Securities and Exchange Commission, such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act of 1933 and is therefore unenforceable.
Item 16. Exhibits
The exhibits to this registration statement are listed in the Exhibit Index to this registration statement, which Exhibit Index is hereby incorporated by reference.
Item 17. Undertakings
(a)    The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes:
(1)    To file, during any period in which offers or sales are being made, a post-effective amendment to this registration statement:
33


(i)    To include any prospectus required by section 10(a)(3) of the Securities Act of 1933;
(ii)    To reflect in the prospectus any facts or events arising after the effective date of the registration statement (or the most recent post-effective amendment thereof) which, individually or in the aggregate, represent a fundamental change in the information set forth in the registration statement. Notwithstanding the foregoing, any increase or decrease in volume of securities offered (if the total dollar value of securities offered would not exceed that which was registered) and any deviation from the low or high end of the estimated maximum offering range may be reflected in the form of prospectus filed with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) if, in the aggregate, the changes in volume and price represent no more than a 20% change in the maximum aggregate offering price set forth in the “Calculation of Registration Fee” table in the effective registration statement; and
(iii)    To include any material information with respect to the plan of distribution not previously disclosed in the registration statement or any material change to such information in the registration statement;
provided, however, that paragraphs (a)(1)(i), (a)(1)(ii) and (a)(1)(iii) do not apply if the information required to be included in a post-effective amendment by those paragraphs is contained in reports filed with or furnished to the Commission by the registrant pursuant to section 13 or section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 that are incorporated by reference in the registration statement, or is contained in a form of prospectus filed pursuant to Rule 424(b) that is part of the registration statement.
(2)    That, for the purpose of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each such post-effective amendment shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.
(3)    To remove from registration by means of a post-effective amendment any of the securities being registered which remain unsold at the termination of the offering.
(4)    That, for the purpose of determining liability under the Securities Act of 1933 to any purchaser:
(i)    Each prospectus filed by the registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(3) shall be deemed to be part of the registration statement as of the date the filed prospectus was deemed part of and included in the registration statement; and
(ii) Each prospectus required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424(b)(2), (b)(5), or (b)(7) as part of a registration statement in reliance on Rule 430B relating to an offering made pursuant to Rule 415(a)(1)(i), (vii), or (x) for the purpose of providing the information required by section 10(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 shall be deemed to be part of and included in the registration statement as of the earlier of the date such form of prospectus is first used after effectiveness or the date of the first contract of sale of securities in the offering described in the prospectus. As provided in Rule 430B, for liability purposes of the issuer and any person that is at that date an underwriter, such date shall be deemed to be a new effective date of the registration statement relating to the securities in the registration statement to which that prospectus relates, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof. Provided, however, that no statement made in a registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement or made in a document incorporated or deemed incorporated by reference into the registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement will, as to a purchaser with a time of contract of sale prior to such effective date, supersede or modify any statement that was made in the registration statement or prospectus that was part of the registration statement or made in any such document immediately prior to such effective date.
(5)    That, for the purpose of determining liability of the registrant under the Securities Act of 1933 to any purchaser in the initial distribution of the securities, in a primary offering of securities of the undersigned registrant pursuant to this registration statement, regardless of the underwriting method used to sell the securities to the purchaser, if the securities are offered or sold to such purchaser by means of any of the following communications, the undersigned registrant will be a seller to the purchaser and will be considered to offer or sell such securities to such purchaser:
(i)     Any preliminary prospectus or prospectus of the undersigned registrant relating to the offering required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424;
34


(ii) Any free writing prospectus relating to the offering prepared by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant or used or referred to by the undersigned registrant;
(iii) The portion of any other free writing prospectus relating to the offering containing material information about the undersigned registrant or its securities provided by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant; and
(iv) Any other communication that is an offer in the offering made by the undersigned registrant to the purchaser.

(b)    The undersigned registrant undertakes that, for purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933:
(i)     the information omitted from the form of prospectus filed as part of the registration statement in reliance upon Rule 430A and contained in the form of prospectus filed by the registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(1) or (4) or 497(h) under the Securities Act shall be deemed to be part of the registration statement as of the time it was declared effective; and
(ii) each post-effective amendment that contains a form of prospectus shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.
(c)    The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes that, for purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each filing of the registrant’s annual report pursuant to section 13(a) or section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (and, where applicable, each filing of an employee benefit plan’s annual report pursuant to section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934) that is incorporated by reference in the registration statement shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.
(d)    Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act of 1933 may be permitted to directors, officers and controlling persons of the registrant, the registrant has been advised that in the opinion of the Securities and Exchange Commission such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Act and is, therefore, unenforceable. In the event that a claim for indemnification against such liabilities (other than the payment by the registrant of expenses incurred or paid by a director, officer or controlling person of the registrant in the successful defense of any action, suit or proceeding) is asserted by such director, officer or controlling person in connection with the securities being registered, the registrant will, unless in the opinion of its counsel the matter has been settled by controlling precedent, submit to a court of appropriate jurisdiction the question whether such indemnification by it is against public policy as expressed in the Act and will be governed by the final adjudication of such issue.
(e)    The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes to file an application for the purpose of determining the eligibility of the trustee to act under subsection (a) of Section 310 of the Trust Indenture Act in accordance with the rules and regulations prescribed by the Commission under section 305(b)(2) of the Trust Indenture Act.
35


EXHIBIT INDEX

Incorporated by Reference to Filings Indicated
Exhibit
Number
Exhibit Description
Provided Herewith
Form (Exhibit No.)Filing DateSEC File/Reg. Number
4.110-Q (Exhibit No. 3.1)8/14/2017001-36395
4.28-K (Exhibit No. 3.1)6/3/2020001-36395
4.310-K (Exhibit No. 4.1)3/28/2018001-36395
4.4*
Form of Certificate of Amendment or Certificate of Designation with respect to Preferred Stock
4.5*Form of Warrant Agreement and/or Warrant Certificate
4.6*Form of Senior Debt Security
4.7*Form of Subordinated Debt Security
4.8X
4.9X
4.10*Form of Warrant Agreement and Warrant Certificate
4.11*Form of Rights Agreement and Right Certificate
4.12*Form of Purchase Contract
4.13*Form of Unit Agreement and Unit
II-I



5.1
X
23.1
X
23.2
X
24.1
X
25.1**
Statement of Eligibility on Form T‑1 under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, of the Trustee under the Senior Indenture
25.2**
Statement of Eligibility on Form T‑1 under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, of the Trustee under the Subordinated Indenture

* To be subsequently filed, as applicable, by amendment to this registration statement or as an exhibit to a report pursuant to Section 13(a), 13(c) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act.

** To be incorporated herein by reference from a subsequent filing in accordance with Section 305(b)(2) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as applicable.
II-II



SIGNATURES
Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, the registrant certifies that it has reasonable grounds to believe that it meets all of the requirements for filing on Form S-3 and has duly caused this registration statement to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized, in City of San Diego, State of California, on March 30, 2021.
Daré Bioscience, Inc.
By: /s/ Lisa Walters-Hoffert
Lisa Walters-Hoffert
Chief Financial Officer

SIGNATURES AND POWER OF ATTORNEY
We, the undersigned officers and directors of Daré Bioscience, Inc., hereby severally constitute and appoint Sabrina Martucci Johnson and Lisa Walters-Hoffert, and each of them singly (with full power to each of them to act alone), our true and lawful attorneys-in-fact and agents, with full power of substitution and resubstitution in each of them for her or him and in her or his name, place and stead, and in any and all capacities, to sign any and all amendments (including post-effective amendments) to this registration statement (or any other registration statement for the same offering that is to be effective upon filing pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act of 1933), and to file the same, with all exhibits thereto and other documents in connection therewith, with the Securities and Exchange Commission, granting unto said attorneys-in-fact and agents, and each of them, full power and authority to do and perform each and every act and thing requisite or necessary to be done in and about the premises, as full to all intents and purposes as she or he might or could do in person, hereby ratifying and confirming all that said attorneys-in-fact and agents or any of them or their or her or his substitute or substitutes may lawfully do or cause to be done by virtue hereof.
Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, this registration statement has been signed below by the following persons in the capacities and on the dates indicated.
Signature
Title
Date
/s/ Sabrina Martucci Johnson
President, Chief Executive Officer, Secretary and Director
March 30, 2021
Sabrina Martucci Johnson
(Principal Executive Officer)
/s/ Lisa Walters-Hoffert
Chief Financial Officer
March 30, 2021
Lisa Walters-Hoffert
(Principal Financial and Accounting Officer)
/s/ William H. Rastetter
Chairman of the Board
March 30, 2021
William H. Rastetter, Ph.D.
/s/ Cheryl R. Blanchard
Director
March 30, 2021
Cheryl R. Blanchard, Ph.D.
/s/ Jessica D. Grossman
Director
March 30, 2021
Jessica D. Grossman, M.D.
/s/ Susan L. Kelley
Director
March 30, 2021
Susan L. Kelley, M.D.
/s/ Gregory W. Matz
Director
March 30, 2021
Gregory W. Matz, CPA
/s/ Robin J. Steele
Director
March 30, 2021
Robin J. Steele, J.D., L.L.M.


Document

Exhibit 4.8
 

DARÉ BIOSCIENCE, INC.
 
Issuer
 
AND
 
[ ]
 
Trustee
 
INDENTURE
 
Dated as of [   ]
 
Senior Debt Securities
 



80673602v.2


CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE (1)
 
Section of
Trust Indenture ActSection of
of 1939, as AmendedIndenture
   
310(a).7.09
310(b).7.08
7.10
310(c).Inapplicable
311(a).7.13(a)
311(b).7.13(b)
311(c).Inapplicable
312(a)5.02(a)
312(b).5.02(b)
312(c).5.02(c)
313(a).5.04(a)
313(b).5.04(a)
313(c).5.04(a)
5.04(b)
313(d).5.04(b)
314(a).5.03
314(b).Inapplicable
314(c).13.06
314(d).Inapplicable
314(e).13.06
314(f).Inapplicable
315(a).7.01(a)
7.02
315(b).6.07
315(c).7.01
315(d).7.01(b)
7.01(c)
315(e).6.07
316(a).6.06
8.04
316(b).6.04
316(c).8.01
317(a).6.02
317(b).4.03
318(a).13.08
 
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(1) This Cross-Reference Table does not constitute part of the Indenture and shall not have any bearing on the interpretation of any of its terms or provisions.


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TABLE OF CONTENTS (2)
 
Page
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   

   
   
   
 
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(2) This Table of Contents does not constitute part of the Indenture and shall not have any bearing on the interpretation of any of its terms and provisions.


80673602v.2


INDENTURE, dated as of [  ], by and between Daré Bioscience, Inc., a Delaware corporation (the “Company”), and [   ], as trustee (the “Trustee”):
 
WHEREAS, for its lawful corporate purposes, the Company has duly authorized the execution and delivery of this Indenture to provide for the issuance of debt securities (hereinafter referred to as the “Securities”), in an unlimited aggregate principal amount to be issued from time to time in one or more series as in this Indenture provided, as registered Securities without coupons, to be authenticated by the certificate of the Trustee;
 
WHEREAS, to provide the terms and conditions upon which the Securities are to be authenticated, issued and delivered, the Company has duly authorized the execution of this Indenture; and
 
WHEREAS, all things necessary to make this Indenture a valid agreement of the Company, in accordance with its terms, have been done.
 
NOW, THEREFORE, in consideration of the premises and the purchase of the Securities by the holders thereof, it is mutually covenanted and agreed as follows for the equal and ratable benefit of the holders of Securities:
 

 
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ARTICLE I
 
DEFINITIONS
 
SECTION 1.01 Definitions of Terms.
 
The terms defined in this Section (except as in this Indenture otherwise expressly provided or unless the context otherwise requires) for all purposes of this Indenture and of any indenture supplemental hereto shall have the respective meanings specified in this Section and shall include the plural as well as the singular.  All other terms used in this Indenture that are defined in the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, or that are by reference in such Act defined in the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (except as herein otherwise expressly provided or unless the context otherwise requires), shall have the meanings assigned to such terms in said Trust Indenture Act and in said Securities Act as in force at the date of the execution of this instrument.
 
“Authenticating Agent” means an authenticating agent with respect to all or any of the series of Securities appointed with respect to all or any series of the Securities by the Trustee pursuant to Section 2.10.
 
“Bankruptcy Law” means Title 11, U.S. Code, or any similar federal or state law for the relief of debtors.
 
“Board of Directors” means the Board of Directors of the Company or any duly authorized committee of such Board.
 
“Board Resolution” means a copy of a resolution certified by the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary of the Company to have been duly adopted by the Board of Directors and to be in full force and effect on the date of such certification.
 
“Business Day” means, with respect to any series of Securities, any day other than a day on which Federal or State banking institutions in the Borough of Manhattan, the City and State of New York, are authorized or obligated by law, executive order or regulation to close.
 
“Certificate” means a certificate signed by the principal executive officer, the principal financial officer or the principal accounting officer of the Company.  The Certificate need not comply with the provisions of Section 13.07.
 
“Commission” means the Securities and Exchange Commission.
 
“Company” means the corporation named as the “Company” in the first paragraph of this instrument until a successor corporation shall have become such pursuant to the applicable provisions of this Indenture, and thereafter “Company” shall mean such successor corporation.
 
“Corporate Trust Office” means the office of the Trustee at which, at any particular time, its corporate trust business shall be principally administered, which office at the date hereof is located at [ ], except that whenever a provision herein refers to an office or agency of the Trustee in the Borough of Manhattan, the City and State of New York, such office is located, at the date hereof, at [ ].
 
“Custodian” means any receiver, trustee, assignee, liquidator, or similar official under any Bankruptcy Law.
 
“Default” means an event which is, or after notice or lapse of time, or both, would constitute an Event of Default.
 
“Depositary” means, with respect to Securities of any series, for which the Company shall determine that such Securities will be issued as a Global Security, The Depository Trust Company, New York, New York, another clearing agency, or any successor registered as a clearing agency under the Exchange Act, or other applicable statute or regulation, which, in each case, shall be designated by the Company pursuant to either Section 2.01 or Section 2.11.
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“Event of Default” means, with respect to Securities of a particular series, any event specified in Section 6.01, continued for the period of time, if any, therein designated.
 
“Exchange Act” means the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended.
 
“Global Security” means, with respect to any series of Securities, a Security executed by the Company and delivered by the Trustee to the Depositary or pursuant to the Depositary’s instruction, all in accordance with this Indenture, which shall be registered in the name of the Depositary or its nominee.
 
“Governmental Obligations” means securities that are (i) direct obligations of the United States of America for the payment of which its full faith and credit is pledged or (ii) obligations of a Person controlled or supervised by and acting as an agency or instrumentality of the United States of America, the payment of which is unconditionally guaranteed as a full faith and credit obligation by the United States of America that, in either case, are non-callable at the option of the issuer thereof, and shall also include a depositary receipt issued by a bank (as defined in Section 3(a)(2) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended) as custodian with respect to any such Governmental Obligation or a specific payment of principal of or interest on any such Governmental Obligation held by such custodian for the account of the holder of such depositary receipt; provided, however, that (except as required by law) such custodian is not authorized to make any deduction from the amount payable to the holder of such depositary receipt from any amount received by the custodian in respect of the Governmental Obligation or the specific payment of principal of or interest on the Governmental Obligation evidenced by such depositary receipt.
 
“herein,” “hereof” and “hereunder,” and other words of similar import, refer to this Indenture as a whole and not to any particular Article, Section or other subdivision.
 
“Indenture” means this instrument as originally executed or as it may from time to time be supplemented or amended by one or more indentures supplemental hereto entered into in accordance with the terms hereof.
 
“Interest Payment Date,” when used with respect to any installment of interest on a Security of a particular series, means the date specified in such Security or in a Board Resolution or in an indenture supplemental hereto with respect to such series as the fixed date on which an installment of interest with respect to Securities of that series is due and payable.
 
“Officers’ Certificate” means a certificate signed by the President or a Vice President and by the Chief Financial Officer, Vice President of Finance, the Treasurer or an Assistant Treasurer or the Controller or an Assistant Controller or the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary of the Company that is delivered to the Trustee in accordance with the terms hereof.  Certificate shall include the statements provided for in Section 13.07, if and to the extent required by the provisions thereof.

“Opinion of Counsel” means a written opinion of counsel, who may be counsel to the Company (and may include directors or employees of the Company) and which opinion is acceptable to the Trustee which acceptance shall not be unreasonably withheld.
 
“Outstanding”, when used with reference to Securities of any series, means, subject to the provisions of Section 8.04, as of any particular time, all Securities of that series theretofore authenticated and delivered by the Trustee under this Indenture, except (a) Securities theretofore canceled by the Trustee or any paying agent, or delivered to the Trustee or any paying agent for cancellation or that have previously been canceled; (b) Securities or portions thereof for the payment or redemption of which moneys or Governmental Obligations in the necessary amount shall have been deposited in trust with the Trustee or with any paying agent (other than the Company) or shall have been set aside and segregated in trust by the Company (if the Company shall act as its own paying agent); provided, however, that if such Securities or portions of such Securities are to be redeemed prior to the maturity thereof, notice of such redemption shall have been given as in Article III provided, or provision satisfactory to the Trustee shall have been made for giving such notice; and (c) Securities in lieu of or in substitution for which other Securities shall have been authenticated and delivered pursuant to the terms of Section 2.07.
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“Person” means any individual, corporation, limited liability company, partnership, joint-venture, association, joint-stock company, trust, estate, unincorporated organization or government or any agency or political subdivision thereof.
 
“Predecessor Security” of any particular Security means every previous Security evidencing all or a portion of the same debt as that evidenced by such particular Security; and, for the purposes of this definition, any Security authenticated and delivered under Section 2.07 in lieu of a mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Security shall be deemed to evidence the same debt as the mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Security.
 
“Responsible Officer,” when used with respect to the Trustee, means any officer of the Trustee, including any vice president, assistant vice president, secretary, assistant secretary, the treasurer, any assistant treasurer, the managing director or any other officer of the Trustee customarily performing functions similar to those performed by any of the above designated officers and also means, with respect to a particular corporate trust matter, any other officer to whom such matter is referred because of such officer’s knowledge of and familiarity with the particular subject.
 
“Securities” means the debt Securities authenticated and delivered under this Indenture.
 
“Security Register” has the meaning specified in Section 2.05.
 
“Security Registrar” has the meaning specified in Section 2.05.
 
“Securityholder,” “holder of Securities,” “registered holder,” or other similar term, means the Person or Persons in whose name or names a particular Security shall be registered in the Security Register.
 
“Subsidiary” means, with respect to any Person, (i) any corporation at least a majority of whose outstanding Voting Stock shall at the time be owned, directly or indirectly, by such Person or by one or more of its Subsidiaries or by such Person and one or more of its Subsidiaries, (ii) any general partnership, joint venture or similar entity, at least a majority of whose outstanding partnership or similar interests shall at the time be owned by such Person, or by one or more of its Subsidiaries, or by such Person and one or more of its Subsidiaries and (iii) any limited partnership of which such Person or any of its Subsidiaries is a general partner.
 
“Trustee” means the Person named as the “Trustee” in the first paragraph of this instrument until a successor Trustee shall have become such pursuant to the applicable provisions of this Indenture, and thereafter “Trustee” shall mean such successor Trustee.  The term “Trustee” as used with respect to a particular series of the Securities shall mean the trustee with respect to that series.
 
“Trust Indenture Act” means the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, subject to the provisions of Sections 9.01, 9.02, and 10.01, as in effect at the date of execution of this instrument; provided, however, that in the event the Trust Indenture Act is amended after such date, Trust Indenture Act means, to the extent required by such amendment, the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as so amended, or any successor statute.
 
“Voting Stock,” as applied to any Person, means shares, interests, participations or other equivalents in the equity interest (however designated) in such Person having ordinary voting power for the election of a majority of the directors (or the equivalent) of such Person, other than shares, interests, participations or other equivalents having such power only by reason of the occurrence of a contingency.

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80673602v.2


ARTICLE II
 
ISSUE, DESCRIPTION, TERMS, EXECUTION,
REGISTRATION AND EXCHANGE OF SECURITIES
 
SECTION 2.01 Designation and Terms of Securities.
 
(a) The aggregate principal amount of Securities that may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture is unlimited.  The Securities may be issued in one or more series up to the aggregate principal amount of Securities of that series from time to time authorized by or pursuant to a Board Resolution of the Company or pursuant to one or more indentures supplemental hereto. Prior to the initial issuance of Securities of a given series, there shall be established in or pursuant to a Board Resolution of the Company, and set forth in an Officers’ Certificate of the Company, or established in one or more indentures supplemental hereto:
 
(1) the title of the Security of the series (which shall distinguish the Securities of the series from all other Securities);
 
(2) the aggregate principal amount of the Securities of such series initially to be issued and any limit upon the aggregate principal amount of the Securities of that series that may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture (except for Securities authenticated and delivered upon registration of transfer of, or in exchange for, or in lieu of, other Securities of that series);
 
(3) the currency or units based on or relating to currencies in which debt securities of such series are denominated and the currency or units in which principal or interest or both will or may be payable;
 
(4) the date or dates on which the principal of the Securities of the series is payable and the place(s) of payment;
 
(5) the rate or rates at which the Securities of the series shall bear interest or the manner of calculation of such rate or rates, if any;
 
(6) the date or dates from which such interest shall accrue, the Interest Payment Dates on which such interest will be payable or the manner of determination of such Interest Payment Dates, the place(s) of payment, and the record date for the determination of holders to whom interest is payable on any such Interest Payment Dates or the method for determining such dates;
 
(7) the right, if any, to extend the interest payment periods or to defer the payment of interest and the duration of such extension;
 
(8) the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and the terms and conditions upon which, Securities of the series may be redeemed, in whole or in part, at the option of the Company;
 
(9) the obligation, if any, of the Company to redeem or purchase Securities of the series pursuant to any sinking fund or analogous provisions (including payments made in cash in satisfaction of future sinking fund obligations) or at the option of a holder thereof and the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which, and the terms and conditions upon which, Securities of the series shall be redeemed or purchased, in whole or in part, pursuant to such obligation;
 
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80673602v.2


(10) whether or not the debt securities will be secured or unsecured, and the terms of any secured debt;
 
(11) the form of the Securities of the series including the form of the Certificate of Authentication for such series;
 
(12) if other than denominations of one thousand U.S. dollars ($1,000) or any integral multiple thereof, the denominations in which the Securities of the series shall be issuable;
 
(13) any and all other terms with respect to such series (which terms shall not be inconsistent with the terms of this Indenture, as amended by any supplemental indenture) including any terms which may be required by or advisable under United States laws or regulations or advisable in connection with the marketing of Securities of that series;
 
(14) whether the Securities are issuable as a Global Security and, in such case, the identity of the Depositary for such series;
 
(15) whether the Securities will be convertible into shares of common stock or other securities of the Company and, if so, the terms and conditions upon which such Securities will be so convertible, including the conversion price and the conversion period;
 
(16) if other than the principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount of Securities of the series which shall be payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof pursuant to Section 6.01; and
 
(17) any additional or different Events of Default or restrictive covenants provided for with respect to the Securities of the series.
 
All Securities of any one series shall be substantially identical except as to denomination and except as may otherwise be provided in or pursuant to any such Board Resolution or in any indentures supplemental hereto.
 
If any of the terms of the series are established by action taken pursuant to a Board Resolution of the Company, a copy of an appropriate record of such action shall be certified by the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary of the Company and delivered to the Trustee at or prior to the delivery of the Officers’ Certificate of the Company setting forth the terms of the series.
 
Securities of any particular series may be issued at various times, with different dates on which the principal or any installment of principal is payable, with different rates of interest, if any, or different methods by which rates of interest may be determined, with different dates on which such interest may be payable and with different redemption dates.
 
SECTION 2.02 Form of Securities and Trustee’s Certificate.
 
The Securities of any series and the Trustee’s certificate of authentication to be borne by such Securities shall be substantially of the tenor and purport as set forth in one or more indentures supplemental hereto or as provided in a Board Resolution of the Company and as set forth in an Officers’ Certificate of the Company and may have such letters, numbers or other marks of identification or designation and such legends or endorsements printed, lithographed or engraved thereon as the Company may deem appropriate and as are not inconsistent with the provisions of this Indenture, or as may be required to comply with any law or with any rule or regulation made pursuant thereto or with any rule or regulation of any stock exchange on which Securities of that series may be listed, or to conform to usage.
 

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SECTION 2.03 Denominations:  Provisions for Payment.
 
The Securities shall be issuable as registered Securities and in the denominations of one thousand U.S. dollars ($1,000) or any integral multiple thereof, subject to Section 2.01(a)(12).  The Securities of a particular series shall bear interest payable on the dates and at the rate specified with respect to that series.  The principal of and the interest on the Securities of any series, as well as any premium thereon in case of redemption thereof prior to maturity, shall be payable in the coin or currency of the United States of America that at the time is legal tender for public and private debt, at the office or agency of the Company maintained for that purpose in the Borough of Manhattan, the City and State of New York.  Each Security shall be dated the date of its authentication.  Interest on the Securities shall be computed on the basis of a 360-day year composed of twelve 30-day months.
 
The interest installment on any Security that is payable, and is punctually paid or duly provided for, on any Interest Payment Date for Securities of that series shall be paid to the Person in whose name said Security (or one or more Predecessor Securities) is registered at the close of business on the regular record date for such interest installment.  In the event that any Security of a particular series or portion thereof is called for redemption and the redemption date is subsequent to a regular record date with respect to any Interest Payment Date and prior to such Interest Payment Date, interest on such Security will be paid upon presentation and surrender of such Security as provided in Section 3.03.
 
Any interest on any Security that is payable, but is not punctually paid or duly provided for, on any Interest Payment Date for Securities of the same series (herein called “Defaulted Interest”) shall forthwith cease to be payable to the registered holder on the relevant regular record date by virtue of having been such holder; and such Defaulted Interest shall be paid by the Company, at its election, as provided in clause (1) or clause (2) below:
 
(1) The Company may make payment of any Defaulted Interest on Securities to the Persons in whose names such Securities (or their respective Predecessor Securities) are registered at the close of business on a special record date for the payment of such Defaulted Interest, which shall be fixed in the following manner:  the Company shall notify the Trustee in writing of the amount of Defaulted Interest proposed to be paid on each such Security and the date of the proposed payment, and at the same time the Company shall deposit with the Trustee an amount of money equal to the aggregate amount proposed to be paid in respect of such Defaulted Interest or shall make arrangements satisfactory to the Trustee for such deposit prior to the date of the proposed payment, such money when deposited to be held in trust for the benefit of the Persons entitled to such Defaulted Interest as in this clause provided.  Thereupon the Trustee shall fix a special record date for the payment of such Defaulted Interest which shall not be more than 15 nor less than 10 days prior to the date of the proposed payment and not less than 10 days after the receipt by the Trustee of the notice of the proposed payment.  The Trustee shall promptly notify the Company of such special record date and, in the name and at the expense of the Company, shall cause notice of the proposed payment of such Defaulted Interest and the special record date therefor to be mailed, first class postage prepaid, to each Securityholder at his or her address as it appears in the Security Register, not less than 10 days prior to such special record date.  Notice of the proposed payment of such Defaulted Interest and the special record date therefor having been mailed as aforesaid, such Defaulted Interest shall be paid to the Persons in whose names such Securities (or their respective Predecessor Securities) are registered on such special record date.
 
(2) The Company may make payment of any Defaulted Interest on any Securities in any other lawful manner not inconsistent with the requirements of any securities exchange on which such Securities may be listed, and upon such notice as may be required by such exchange, if, after notice given by the Company to the Trustee of the proposed payment 
pursuant to this clause, such manner of payment shall be deemed practicable by the Trustee.
 
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Unless otherwise set forth in a Board Resolution of the Company or one or more indentures supplemental hereto establishing the terms of any series of Securities pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof, the term “regular record date” as used in this Section with respect to a series of Securities with respect to any Interest Payment Date for such series shall mean either the fifteenth day of the month immediately preceding the month in which an Interest Payment Date established for such series pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof shall occur, if such Interest Payment Date is the first day of a month, or the last day of the month immediately preceding the month in which an Interest Payment Date established for such series pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof shall occur, if such Interest Payment Date is the fifteenth day of a month, whether or not such date is a Business Day.
 
Subject to the foregoing provisions of this Section, each Security of a series delivered under this Indenture upon transfer of or in exchange for or in lieu of any other Security of such series shall carry the rights to interest accrued and unpaid, and to accrue, that were carried by such other Security.
 
SECTION 2.04 Execution and Authentications.
 
The Securities shall be signed on behalf of the Company by its President, or one of its Vice Presidents, or its Treasurer, or one of its Assistant Treasurers, or its Secretary, or one of its Assistant Secretaries, under its corporate seal attested by its Secretary or one of its Assistant Secretaries.  Signatures may be in the form of a manual or facsimile signature.  The Company may use the facsimile signature of any Person who shall have been a President or Vice President thereof, or of any Person who shall have been a Treasurer or Assistant Treasurer thereof, or of any Person who shall have been a Secretary or Assistant Secretary thereof, notwithstanding the fact that at the time the Securities shall be authenticated and delivered or disposed of such Person shall have ceased to be the President or a Vice President, the Treasurer or an Assistant Treasurer or the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary, of the Company.  The seal of the Company may be in the form of a facsimile of such seal and may be impressed, affixed, imprinted or otherwise reproduced on the Securities.  The Securities may contain such notations, legends or endorsements required by law, stock exchange rule or usage.  Each Security shall be dated the date of its authentication.
 
A Security shall not be valid or obligatory for any purpose and shall not be entitled to any benefit under this Indenture, in each case, until authenticated with a certificate of authentication manually signed by an authorized signatory of the Trustee, or by an Authenticating Agent.  Such certificate shall be conclusive evidence, and the only evidence, that the Security so authenticated has been duly authenticated and delivered hereunder and that the Security is entitled to the benefits of this Indenture.  At any time and from time to time after the execution and delivery of this Indenture, the Company may deliver Securities of any series executed by the Company to the Trustee for authentication, together with a written order of the Company for the authentication and delivery of such Securities, signed by its President or any Vice President and its Secretary or any Assistant Secretary, and the Trustee in accordance with such written order shall authenticate and deliver such Securities.
 
In authenticating such Securities and accepting the additional responsibilities under this Indenture in relation to such Securities, the Trustee shall be entitled to receive, and (subject to Section 7.01) shall be fully protected in relying upon, an Opinion of Counsel stating that the form and terms thereof have been established in conformity with the provisions of this Indenture.
 
The Trustee shall not be required to authenticate such Securities if the issue of such Securities pursuant to this Indenture will affect the Trustee’s own rights, duties or immunities under the Securities and this Indenture or otherwise in a manner that is not reasonably acceptable to the Trustee.
 
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SECTION 2.05 Registration of Transfer and Exchange.
 
(a) Securities of any series may be exchanged upon presentation thereof at the office or agency of the Company designated for such purpose in the Borough of Manhattan, the City and State of New York, for other Securities of such series of authorized denominations, and for a like aggregate principal amount, upon payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge in relation thereto, all as provided in this Section.  In respect of any Securities so surrendered for exchange, the Company shall execute, the Trustee shall authenticate and such office or agency shall deliver in exchange therefor the Security or Securities of the same series that the Securityholder making the exchange shall be entitled to receive, bearing numbers not contemporaneously outstanding.
 
(b) The Company shall keep, or cause to be kept, at its office or agency designated for such purpose in the Borough of Manhattan, the City and State of New York, or such other location designated by the Company a register or registers (herein referred to as the “Security Register”) in which, subject to such reasonable regulations as it may prescribe, the Company shall register the Securities and the transfers of Securities as in this Article provided and which at all reasonable times shall be open for inspection by the Trustee.  The registrar for the purpose of registering Securities and transfer of Securities as herein provided shall be appointed as authorized by Board Resolution (the “Security Registrar”).
 
Upon surrender for transfer of any Security at the office or agency of the Company designated for such purpose, the Company shall execute, the Trustee shall authenticate and such office or agency shall deliver in the name of the transferee or transferees a new Security or Securities of the same series as the Security presented for a like aggregate principal amount.
 
All Securities presented or surrendered for exchange or registration of transfer, as provided in this Section, shall be accompanied (if so required by the Company or the Security Registrar) by a written instrument or instruments of transfer, in form satisfactory to the Company or the Security Registrar, duly executed by the registered holder or by such holder’s duly authorized attorney in writing.
 
(c) No service charge shall be made for any exchange or registration of transfer of Securities, or issue of new Securities in case of partial redemption of any series, but the Company may require payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge in relation thereto, other than exchanges pursuant to Section 2.06, Section 3.03(b) and Section 9.04 not involving any transfer.
 
(d) The Company shall not be required (i) to issue, exchange or register the transfer of any Securities during a period beginning at the opening of business 15 days before the day of the mailing of a notice of redemption of less than all the Outstanding Securities of the same series and ending at the close of business on the day of such mailing, nor (ii) to register the transfer of or exchange any Securities of any series or portions thereof called for redemption.  The provisions of this Section 2.05 are, with respect to any Global Security, subject to Section 2.11 hereof.
 
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SECTION 2.06 Temporary Securities.
 
Pending the preparation of definitive Securities of any series, the Company may execute, and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver, temporary Securities (printed, lithographed or typewritten) of any authorized denomination.  Such temporary Securities shall be substantially in the form of the definitive Securities in lieu of which they are issued, but with such omissions, insertions and variations as may be appropriate for temporary Securities, all as may be determined by the Company.  Every temporary Security of any series shall be executed by the Company and be authenticated by the Trustee upon the same conditions and in substantially the same manner, and with like effect, as the definitive Securities of such series.  Without unnecessary delay the Company will execute and will furnish definitive Securities of such series and thereupon any or all temporary Securities of such series may be surrendered in exchange therefor (without charge to the holders), at the office or agency of the Company designated for the purpose in the Borough of Manhattan, the City and State of New York, and the Trustee shall authenticate and such office or agency shall deliver in exchange for such temporary Securities an equal aggregate principal amount of definitive Securities of such series, unless the Company advises the Trustee to the effect that definitive Securities need not be executed and furnished until further notice from the Company.  Until so exchanged, the temporary Securities of such series shall be entitled to the same benefits under this Indenture as definitive Securities of such series authenticated and delivered hereunder.
  
SECTION 2.07 Mutilated, Destroyed, Lost or Stolen Securities.
 
In case any temporary or definitive Security shall become mutilated or be destroyed, lost or stolen, the Company (subject to the next succeeding sentence) shall execute, and upon the Company’s request the Trustee (subject as aforesaid) shall authenticate and deliver, a new Security of the same series, bearing a number not contemporaneously outstanding, in exchange and substitution for the mutilated Security, or in lieu of and in substitution for the Security so destroyed, lost or stolen.  In every case the applicant for a substituted Security shall furnish to the Company and the Trustee such security or indemnity as may be required by them to save each of them harmless, and, in every case of destruction, loss or theft, the applicant shall also furnish to the Company and the Trustee evidence to their satisfaction of the destruction, loss or theft of the applicant’s Security and of the ownership thereof.  The Trustee may authenticate any such substituted Security and deliver the same upon the written request or authorization of any officer of the Company.  Upon the issuance of any substituted Security, the Company may require the payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge that may be imposed in relation thereto and any other expenses (including the fees and expenses of the Trustee) connected therewith.  In case any Security that has matured or is about to mature shall become mutilated or be destroyed, lost or stolen, the Company may, instead of issuing a substitute Security, pay or authorize the payment of the same (without surrender thereof except in the case of a mutilated Security) if the applicant for such payment shall furnish to the Company and the Trustee such security or indemnity as they may require to save them harmless, and, in case of destruction, loss or theft, evidence to the satisfaction of the Company and the Trustee of the destruction, loss or theft of such Security and of the ownership thereof.
 
Every replacement Security issued pursuant to the provisions of this Section shall constitute an additional contractual obligation of the Company whether or not the mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Security shall be found at any time, or be enforceable by anyone, and shall be entitled to all the benefits of this Indenture equally and proportionately with any and all other Securities of the same series duly issued hereunder.  All Securities shall be held and owned upon the express condition that the foregoing provisions are exclusive with respect to the replacement or payment of mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Securities, and shall preclude (to the extent lawful) any and all other rights or remedies, notwithstanding any law or statute existing or hereafter enacted to the contrary with respect to the replacement or payment of negotiable instruments or other securities without their surrender.
 
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SECTION 2.08 Cancellation.
 
All Securities surrendered for the purpose of payment, redemption, exchange or registration of transfer shall, if surrendered to the Company or any paying agent, be delivered to the Trustee for cancellation, or, if surrendered to the Trustee, shall be cancelled by it, and no Securities shall be issued in lieu thereof except as expressly required or permitted by any of the provisions of this Indenture.  On request of the Company at the time of such surrender, the Trustee shall deliver to the Company canceled Securities held by the Trustee.  In the absence of such request the Trustee may dispose of canceled Securities in accordance with its standard procedures and deliver a certificate of disposition to the Company.  If the Company shall otherwise acquire any of the Securities, however, such acquisition shall not operate as a redemption or satisfaction of the indebtedness represented by such Securities unless and until the same are delivered to the Trustee for cancellation.
 
SECTION 2.09 Benefits of Indenture.
 
Nothing in this Indenture or in the Securities, express or implied, shall give or be construed to give to any Person, other than the parties hereto and the holders of the Securities any legal or equitable right, remedy or claim under or in respect of this Indenture, or under any covenant, condition or provision herein contained; all such covenants, conditions and provisions being for the sole benefit of the parties hereto and of the holders of the Securities.
 
SECTION 2.10 Authenticating Agent.
 
So long as any of the Securities of any series remain Outstanding there may be an Authenticating Agent for any or all such series of Securities which the Trustee shall have the right to appoint.  Said Authenticating Agent shall be authorized to act on behalf of the Trustee to authenticate Securities of such series issued upon exchange, transfer or partial redemption thereof, and Securities so authenticated shall be entitled to the benefits of this Indenture and shall be valid and obligatory for all purposes as if authenticated by the Trustee hereunder.  All references in this Indenture to the authentication of Securities by the Trustee shall be deemed to include authentication by an Authenticating Agent for such series.  Each Authenticating Agent shall be acceptable to the Company and shall be a corporation that has a combined capital and surplus, as most recently reported or determined by it, sufficient under the laws of any jurisdiction under which it is organized or in which it is doing business to conduct a trust business, and that is otherwise authorized under such laws to conduct such business and is subject to supervision or examination by Federal or State authorities.  If at any time any Authenticating Agent shall cease to be eligible in accordance with these provisions, it shall resign immediately.
 
Any Authenticating Agent may at any time resign by giving written notice of resignation to the Trustee and to the Company.  The Trustee may at any time (and upon request by the Company shall) terminate the agency of any Authenticating Agent by giving written notice of termination to such Authenticating Agent and to the Company.  Upon resignation, termination or cessation of eligibility of any Authenticating Agent, the Trustee may appoint an eligible successor Authenticating Agent acceptable to the Company.  Any successor Authenticating Agent, upon acceptance of its appointment hereunder, shall become vested with all the rights, powers and duties of its predecessor hereunder as if originally named as an Authenticating Agent pursuant hereto.
 
SECTION 2.11 Global Securities
 
(a) If the Company shall establish pursuant to Section 2.01 that some or all of the Securities of a particular series are to be issued as a Global Security, then the Company shall execute and the Trustee shall, in accordance with Section 2.04, authenticate and deliver, a Global Security that (i) shall represent, and shall be denominated in an amount equal to the aggregate principal amount of, the Outstanding Securities of such series which are to be issued as a Global Security, (ii) shall be registered in the name of the Depositary or its nominee, (iii) shall be delivered by the Trustee to the Depositary or pursuant to the Depositary’s instruction and (iv) shall bear a legend substantially to the following effect:  “Except as otherwise provided in Section 2.11 of the Indenture, this Security may be transferred, in whole but not in part, only to another nominee of the Depositary or to a successor Depositary or to a nominee of such successor Depositary.”
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(b) Notwithstanding the provisions of Section 2.05, the Global Security of a series may be transferred, in whole but not in part and in the manner provided in Section 2.05, only to another nominee of the Depositary for such series, or to a successor Depositary for such series selected or approved by the Company or to a nominee of such successor Depositary.
 
(c) If at any time the Depositary for a series of the Securities notifies the Company that it is unwilling or unable to continue as Depositary for such series or if at any time the Depositary for such series shall no longer be registered or in good standing under the Exchange Act, or other applicable statute or regulation, and a successor Depositary for such series is not appointed by the Company within 90 days after the Company receives such notice or becomes aware of such condition, as the case may be, this Section 2.11 shall no longer be applicable to the Securities of such series and the Company will execute, and subject to Section 2.05, the Trustee will authenticate and deliver the Securities of such series in definitive registered form without coupons, in authorized denominations, and in an aggregate principal amount equal to the principal amount of the Global Security of such series in exchange for such Global Security.  In addition, the Company may at any time determine that the Securities of any series shall no longer be represented by a Global Security and that the provisions of this Section 2.11 shall no longer apply to the Securities of such series.  In such event the Company will execute and subject to Section 2.05, the Trustee, upon receipt of an Officers’ Certificate evidencing such determination by the Company, will authenticate and deliver the Securities of such series in definitive registered form without coupons, in authorized denominations, and in an aggregate principal amount equal to the principal amount of the Global Security of such series in exchange for such Global Security.  Upon the exchange of the Global Security for such Securities in definitive registered form without coupons, in authorized denominations, the Global Security shall be canceled by the Trustee.  Such Securities in definitive registered form issued in exchange for the Global Security pursuant to this Section 2.11(c) shall be registered in such names and in such authorized denominations as the Depositary, pursuant to instructions from its direct or indirect participants or otherwise, shall instruct the Trustee.  The Trustee shall deliver such Securities to the Depositary for delivery to the Persons in whose names such Securities are so registered.
 

ARTICLE III
 
REDEMPTION OF SECURITIES AND SINKING
FUND PROVISIONS
 
SECTION 3.01 Redemption.
 
The Company may redeem the Securities of any series issued hereunder on and after the dates and in accordance with the terms established for such series pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof.
 
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SECTION 3.02 Notice of Redemption.
 
(a) In case the Company shall desire to exercise such right to redeem all or, as the case may be, a portion of the Securities of any series in accordance with the right reserved so to do, the Company shall, or shall cause the Trustee to, give notice of such redemption to holders of the Securities of such series to be redeemed by mailing, first class postage prepaid, a notice of such redemption not less than 30 days and not more than 90 days before the date fixed for redemption of that series to such holders at their last addresses as they shall appear upon the Security Register unless a shorter period is specified in the Securities to be redeemed.  Any notice that is mailed in the manner herein provided shall be conclusively presumed to have been duly given, whether or not the registered holder receives the notice.  In any case, failure duly to give such notice to the holder of any Security of any series designated for redemption in whole or in part, or any defect in the notice, shall not affect the validity of the proceedings for the redemption of any other Securities of such series or any other series.  In the case of any redemption of Securities prior to the expiration of any restriction on such redemption provided in the terms of such Securities or elsewhere in this Indenture, the Company shall furnish the Trustee with an Officers’ Certificate evidencing compliance with any such restriction.
 
Each such notice of redemption shall specify the date fixed for redemption and the redemption price at which Securities of that series are to be redeemed, and shall state that payment of the redemption price of such Securities to be redeemed will be made at the office or agency of the Company in the Borough of Manhattan, the City and State of New York, upon presentation and surrender of such Securities, that interest accrued to the date fixed for redemption will be paid as specified in said notice, that from and after said date interest will cease to accrue and that the redemption is for a sinking fund, if such is the case.  If less than all the Securities of a series are to be redeemed, the notice to the holders of Securities of that series to be redeemed in whole or in part shall specify the particular Securities to be so redeemed.  In case any Security is to be redeemed in part only, the notice that relates to such Security shall state the portion of the principal amount thereof to be redeemed, and shall state that on and after the redemption date, upon surrender of such Security, a new Security or Securities of such series in principal amount equal to the unredeemed portion thereof will be issued.
 
(b) If less than all the Securities of a series are to be redeemed, the Company shall give the Trustee at least 30 days’ notice in advance of the date fixed for redemption as to the aggregate principal amount of Securities of the series to be redeemed, and thereupon the Trustee shall select, by lot or in such other manner as it shall deem appropriate and fair in its discretion and that may provide for the selection of a portion or portions (equal to one thousand U.S. dollars ($1,000) or any integral multiple thereof) of the principal amount of such Securities of a denomination larger than $1,000, the Securities to be redeemed and shall thereafter promptly notify the Company in writing of the numbers of the Securities to be redeemed, in whole or in part.  The Company may, if and whenever it shall so elect, by delivery of instructions signed on its behalf by its President or any Vice President, instruct the Trustee or any paying agent to call all or any part of the Securities of a particular series for redemption and to give notice of redemption in the manner set forth in this Section, such notice to be in the name of the Company or its own name as the Trustee or such paying agent may deem advisable.  In any case in which notice of redemption is to be given by the Trustee or any such paying agent, the Company shall deliver or cause to be delivered to, or permit to remain with, the Trustee or such paying agent, as the case may be, such Security Register, transfer books or other records, or suitable copies or extracts therefrom, sufficient to enable the Trustee or such paying agent to give any notice by mail that may be required under the provisions of this Section.
 
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SECTION 3.03 Payment Upon Redemption.
 
(a) If the giving of notice of redemption shall have been completed as above provided, the Securities or portions of Securities of the series to be redeemed specified in such notice shall become due and payable on the date and at the place stated in such notice at the applicable redemption price, together with interest accrued to the date fixed for redemption and interest on such Securities or portions of Securities shall cease to accrue on and after the date fixed for redemption, unless the Company shall default in the payment of such redemption price and accrued interest with respect to any such Security or portion thereof.  On presentation and surrender of such Securities on or after the date fixed for redemption at the place of payment specified in the notice, said Securities shall be paid and redeemed at the applicable redemption price for such series, together with interest accrued thereon to the date fixed for redemption (but if the date fixed for redemption is an interest payment date, the interest installment payable on such date shall be payable to the registered holder at the close of business on the applicable record date pursuant to Section 2.03).
 
(b) Upon presentation of any Security of such series that is to be redeemed in part only, the Company shall execute and the Trustee shall authenticate and the office or agency where the Security is presented shall deliver to the holder thereof, at the expense of the Company, a new Security of the same series of authorized denominations in principal amount equal to the unredeemed portion of the Security so presented.
 
SECTION 3.04 Sinking Fund.
 
The provisions of Sections 3.04, 3.05 and 3.06 shall be applicable to any sinking fund for the retirement of Securities of a series, except as otherwise specified as contemplated by Section 2.01 for Securities of such series.
 
The minimum amount of any sinking fund payment provided for by the terms of Securities of any series is herein referred to as a “mandatory sinking fund payment,” and any payment in excess of such minimum amount provided for by the terms of Securities of any series is herein referred to as an “optional sinking fund payment.”  If provided for by the terms of Securities of any series, the cash amount of any sinking fund payment may be subject to reduction as provided in Section 3.05.  Each sinking fund payment shall be applied to the redemption of Securities of any series as provided for by the terms of Securities of such series.
 
SECTION 3.05 Satisfaction of Sinking Fund Payments with Securities.
 
The Company (i) may deliver Outstanding Securities of a series (other than any Securities previously called for redemption) and (ii) may apply as a credit Securities of a series that have been redeemed either at the election of the Company pursuant to the terms of such Securities or through the application of permitted optional sinking fund payments pursuant to the terms of such Securities, in each case in satisfaction of all or any part of any sinking fund payment with respect to the Securities of such series required to be made pursuant to the terms of such Securities as provided for by the terms of such series, provided that such Securities have not been previously so credited.  Such Securities shall be received and credited for such purpose by the Trustee at the redemption price specified in such Securities for redemption through operation of the sinking fund and the amount of such sinking fund payment shall be reduced accordingly.
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SECTION 3.06 Redemption of Securities for Sinking Fund.
 
Not less than 45 days prior to each sinking fund payment date for any series of Securities, the Company will deliver to the Trustee an Officers’ Certificate specifying the amount of the next ensuing sinking fund payment for that series pursuant to the terms of the series, the portion thereof, if any, that is to be satisfied by delivering and crediting Securities of that series pursuant to Section 3.05 and the basis for such credit and will, together with such Officers’ Certificate, deliver to the Trustee any Securities to be so delivered.  Not less than 30 days before each such sinking fund payment date the Trustee shall select the Securities to be redeemed upon such sinking fund payment date in the manner specified in Section 3.02 and cause notice of the redemption thereof to be given in the name of and at the expense of the Company in the manner provided in Section 3.02.  Such notice having been duly given, the redemption of such Securities shall be made upon the terms and in the manner stated in Section 3.03.

ARTICLE IV
 
COVENANTS
 
SECTION 4.01 Payment of Principal, Premium and Interest.
 
The Company will duly and punctually pay or cause to be paid the principal of (and premium, if any) and interest on the Securities of that series at the time and place and in the manner provided herein and established with respect to such Securities.
 
SECTION 4.02 Maintenance of Office or Agency.
 
So long as any series of the Securities remain Outstanding, the Company agrees to maintain an office or agency in the Borough of Manhattan, the City and State of New York, with respect to each such series and at such other location or locations as may be designated as provided in this Section 4.02, where (i) Securities of that series may be presented or surrendered for payment, (ii) Securities of that series may be presented as herein above authorized for registration of transfer and exchange, and (iii) notices and demands to or upon the Company in respect of the Securities of that series and this Indenture may be given or served, such designation to continue with respect to such office or agency until the Company shall, by written notice signed by its President or a Vice President and delivered to the trustee, designate some other office or agency for such purposes or any of them.  If at any time the Company shall fail to maintain any such required office or agency or shall fail to furnish the Trustee with the address thereof, such presentations, notices and demands may be made or served at the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee, and the Company hereby appoints the Trustee as its agent to receive all such presentations, notices and demands.
 
SECTION 4.03 Paying Agents.
 
(a) If the Company shall appoint one or more paying agents for all or any series of the Securities, other than the Trustee, the Company will cause each such paying agent to execute and deliver to the Trustee an instrument in which such agent shall agree with the Trustee, subject to the provisions of this Section:
 
(1) that it will hold all sums held by it as such agent for the payment of the principal of (and premium, if any) or interest on the Securities of that series (whether such sums have been paid to it by the Company or by any other obligor of such Securities) in trust for the benefit of the Persons entitled thereto;
 
(2) that it will give the Trustee notice of any failure by the Company (or by any other obligor of such Securities) to make any payment of the principal of (and premium, if any) or interest on the Securities of that series when the same shall be due and payable;
 
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(3) that it will, at any time during the continuance of any failure referred to in the preceding paragraph (a)(2) above, upon the written request of the Trustee, forthwith pay to the Trustee all sums so held in trust by such paying agent; and
 
(4) that it will perform all other duties of paying agent as set forth in this Indenture.
 
 
(b) If the Company shall act as its own paying agent with respect to any series of the Securities, it will on or before each due date of the principal of (and premium, if any) or interest on Securities of that series, set aside, segregate and hold in trust for the benefit of the Persons entitled thereto a sum sufficient with monies held by all other paying agents to pay such principal (and premium, if any) or interest so becoming due on Securities of that series until such sums shall be paid to such Persons or otherwise disposed of as herein provided and will promptly notify the Trustee of such action, or any failure (by it or any other obligor on such Securities) to take such action.  Whenever the Company shall have one or more paying agents for any series of Securities, it will, prior to each due date of the principal of (and premium, if any) or interest on any Securities of that series, deposit with the paying agent a sum sufficient to pay the principal (an premium, if any) or interest so becoming due, such sum to be held in trust for the benefit of the Persons entitled to such principal, premium or interest, and (unless such paying agent is the Trustee) the Company will promptly notify the Trustee of this action or failure so to act.
 
(c) Notwithstanding anything in this Section to the contrary, (i) the agreement to hold sums in trust as provided in this Section is subject to the provisions of Section 11.05, and (ii) the Company may at any time, for the purpose of obtaining the satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture or for any other purpose, pay, or direct any paying agent to pay, to the Trustee all sums held in trust by the Company or such paying agent, such sums to be held by the Trustee upon the same terms and conditions as those upon which such sums were held by the Company or such paying agent; and, upon such payment by any paying agent to the Trustee, such paying agent shall be released from all further liability with respect to such money.
 
SECTION 4.04 Appointment to Fill Vacancy in Office of Trustee.
 
The Company, whenever necessary to avoid or fill a vacancy in the office of Trustee, will appoint, in the manner provided in Section 7.10, a Trustee, so that there shall at all times be a Trustee hereunder.
 
SECTION 4.05 Compliance with Consolidation Provisions.
 
The Company will not, while any of the Securities remain Outstanding, consolidate with or merge into any other Person, in either case where the Company is not the survivor of such transaction, or sell or convey all or substantially all of its property to any other company unless the provisions of Article X hereof are complied with.
 
ARTICLE V
 
SECURITYHOLDERS’ LISTS AND REPORTS
BY THE COMPANY AND THE TRUSTEE
 
SECTION 5.01 Company to Furnish Trustee Names and Addresses of Securityholders.
 
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If the Company is not the Security Register, the Company will furnish or use reasonable efforts to cause to be furnished to the Trustee (a) on each regular record date (as defined in Section 2.03) a list, in such form as the Trustee may reasonably require, of the names and addresses of the holders of each series of Securities as of such regular record date, provided that the Company shall not be obligated to furnish or cause to furnish such list at any time that the list shall not differ in any respect from the most recent list furnished to the Trustee by the Company and (b) at such other times as the Trustee may request in writing within 30 days after the receipt by the Company of any such request, a list of similar form and content as of a date not more than 15 days prior to the time such list is furnished; provided, however, that, in either case, no such list need be furnished for any series for which the Trustee shall be the Security Registrar.
 
SECTION 5.02 Preservation of Information; Communications with Securityholders.
 
(a) The Trustee shall preserve, in as current a form as is reasonably practicable, all information as to the names and addresses of the holders of Securities contained in the most recent list furnished to it as provided in Section 5.01 and as to the names and addresses of holders of Securities received by the Trustee in its capacity as Security Registrar (if acting in such capacity) and shall otherwise comply with Section 312(a) of the Trust Indenture Act.
 
(b) The Trustee may destroy any list furnished to it as provided in Section 5.01 upon receipt of a new list so furnished.
 
(c) Securityholders may communicate as provided in Section 312(b) of the Trust Indenture Act with other Securityholders with respect to their rights under this Indenture or under the Securities.
 
SECTION 5.03 Reports by the Company.
 
(a) The Company covenants and agrees to file with the Trustee, within 15 days after the Company is required to file the same with the Commission, copies of the annual reports and of the information, documents and other reports (or copies of such portions of any of the foregoing as the Commission may from time to time by rules and regulations prescribe) that the Company may be required to file with the Commission pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act; or, if the Company is not required to file information, documents or reports pursuant to either of such sections, then to file with the Trustee and the Commission, in accordance with the rules and regulations prescribed from time to time by the Commission, such of the supplementary and periodic information, documents and reports that may be required pursuant to Section 13 of the Exchange Act, in respect of a security listed and registered on a national securities exchange as may be prescribed from time to time in such rules and regulations; provided, however, the Company shall not be required to deliver to the Trustee any materials for which the Company has sought and received confidential treatment by the Commission.  The Company also shall comply with the other provisions of Section 314(a) of the Trust Indenture Act.
 
(b) The Company covenants and agrees to file with the Trustee and the Commission, in accordance with the rules and regulations prescribed from to time by the Commission, such additional information, documents and reports with respect to compliance by the Company with the conditions and covenants provided for in this Indenture as may be required from time to time by such rules and regulations.
 
(c) The Company covenants and agrees to transmit by mail, first class postage prepaid, or reputable over-night delivery service that provides for evidence of receipt, to the Securityholders, as their names and addresses appear upon the Security Register, within 30 days after the filing thereof with the Trustee, such summaries of any information, documents and reports required to be filed by the Company pursuant to subsections (a) and (b) of this Section as may be required by rules and regulations prescribed from time to time by the Commission.
 
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SECTION 5.04 Reports by the Trustee.
 
(a) The Trustee shall transmit to holders as provided in Section 313 of the Trust Indenture Act such reports concerning the Trustee and its actions under this Indenture as may be required by Section 313 of the Trust Indenture Act at the times and in the manner provided by the Trust Indenture Act.
 
(b) A copy of each such report shall, at the time of such transmission to Securityholders, be filed by the Trustee with the Company, with each stock exchange upon which any Securities are listed (if so listed) and, if required by Section 313 of the Trust Indenture Act, also with the Commission.  The Company agrees to notify the Trustee when any Securities become listed on any stock exchange.


ARTICLE VI
 
REMEDIES OF THE TRUSTEE AND SECURITYHOLDERS
ON EVENT OF DEFAULT
 
SECTION 6.01 Events of Default.
 
(a) Whenever used herein with respect to Securities of a particular series, “Event of Default” means any one or more of the following events that has occurred and is continuing:
 
(1) the Company defaults in the payment of any installment of interest upon any of the Securities of that series, as and when the same shall become due and payable, and continuance of such default for a period of 90 days; provided, however, that a valid extension of an interest payment period by the Company in accordance with the terms of any indenture supplemental hereto shall not constitute a default in the payment of interest for this purpose;
 
(2) the Company defaults in the payment of the principal of (or premium, if any, on) any of the Securities of that series as and when the same shall become due and payable whether at maturity, upon redemption, by declaration or otherwise, or in any payment required by any sinking or analogous fund established with respect to that series; provided, however, that a valid extension of the maturity of such Securities in accordance with the terms of any indenture supplemental hereto shall not constitute a default in the payment of principal or premium, if any;
 
(3) the Company fails to observe or perform any other of its covenants or agreements with respect to that series contained in this Indenture or otherwise established with respect to that series of Securities pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof (other than a covenant or agreement that has been expressly included in this Indenture solely for the benefit of one or more series of Securities other than such series) for a period of 90 days after the date on which written notice of such failure, requiring the same to be remedied and stating that such notice is a “Notice of Default” hereunder, shall have been given to the Company by the Trustee, by registered or certified mail, or to the Company and the Trustee by the holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of the Securities of that series at the time Outstanding;
 
(4) the Company pursuant to or within the meaning of any Bankruptcy Law (i) commences a voluntary case, (ii) consents to the entry of an order for relief against it in an involuntary case, (iii) consents to the appointment of a Custodian of it or for all or substantially all of its property or (iv) makes a general assignment for the benefit of its creditors; or
 
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(5) a court of competent jurisdiction enters an order under any Bankruptcy Law that (i) is for relief against the Company in an involuntary case, (ii) appoints a Custodian of the Company for all or substantially all of its property, or (iii) orders the liquidation of the Company, and the order or decree remains unstayed and in effect for 90 consecutive days.
 
(b) In each and every such case, unless the principal of all the Securities of that series shall have already become due and payable, either the Trustee or the holders of not less than a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of that series then Outstanding hereunder, by notice in writing to the Company (and to the Trustee if given by such Securityholders), may declare the principal (or, if any Securities of that series are discount securities, that portion of the principal amount as may be specified in the terms of that series pursuant to Section 2.01(a)(16)) of (and premium, if any, on) and accrued and unpaid interest, if any, on all the Securities of that series to be due and payable immediately, and upon any such declaration the same shall become and shall be immediately due and payable.
  
(c) At any time after the principal of the Securities of that series shall have been so declared due and payable, and before a judgment or decree for the payment of the moneys due shall have been obtained or entered as hereinafter provided, the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of that series then Outstanding hereunder (or, by action at a meeting of holders of the Securities of such series in accordance with Section 8.09, the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of such series then Outstanding represented at such meeting), by written notice to the Company and the Trustee, may rescind and annul such declaration and its consequences if:  (i) the Company has paid or deposited with the Trustee a sum sufficient to pay all matured installments of interest upon all the Securities of that series and the principal of (and premium, if any, on) any and all Securities of that series that shall have become due otherwise than by acceleration and (ii) any and all Events of Default under this Indenture with respect to such series, other than the nonpayment of principal of (and premium, if any, on) and accrued and unpaid interest, if any, on Securities of that series that shall have become due solely because of such acceleration, shall have been remedied, cured or waived as provided in Section 6.06.  No such rescission and annulment shall extend to or shall affect any subsequent default or impair any right consequent thereon.
 
(d) In case the Trustee shall have proceeded to enforce any right with respect to Securities of that series under this Indenture and such proceedings shall have been discontinued or abandoned because of such rescission or annulment or for any other reason or shall have been determined adversely to the Trustee, then and in every such case, subject to any determination in such proceedings, the Company, and the Trustee shall be restored respectively to their former positions and rights hereunder, and all rights, remedies and powers of the Company and the Trustee shall continue as though no such proceedings had been taken.
 
SECTION 6.02 Collection of Indebtedness and Suits for Enforcement by Trustee.
 
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(a) The Company covenants that (1) in case it shall default in the payment of any installment of interest on any of the Securities of a series, or any payment required by any sinking or analogous fund established with respect to that series as and when the same shall have become due and payable, and such default shall have continued for a period of 90 Business Days, or (2) in case it shall default in the payment of the principal of (or premium, if any, on) any of the Securities of a series when the same shall have become due and payable, whether upon maturity of the Securities of a series or upon redemption or upon declaration or otherwise, then, upon demand of the Trustee, the Company will pay to the Trustee, for the benefit of the holders of the Securities of that series, the whole amount that then shall have been become due and payable on all such Securities for principal (and premium, if any) or interest, or both, as the case may be, with interest upon the overdue principal (and premium, if any) and (to the extent that payment of such interest is enforceable under applicable law) upon overdue installments of interest at the rate per annum expressed in the Securities of that series; and, in addition thereto, such further amount as shall be sufficient to cover the costs and expenses of collection, and the amount payable to the Trustee under Section 7.06.
 
(b) If the Company shall fail to pay such amounts forthwith upon such demand, the Trustee, in its own name and as trustee of an express trust, shall be entitled and empowered to institute any action or proceedings at law or in equity for the collection of the sums so due and unpaid, and may prosecute any such action or proceeding to judgment or final decree, and may enforce any such judgment or final decree against the Company or other obligor upon the Securities of that series and collect the moneys adjudged or decreed to be payable in the manner provided by law out of the property of the Company or other obligor upon the Securities of that series, wherever situated.
 
(c) In case of any receivership, insolvency, liquidation, bankruptcy, reorganization, readjustment, arrangement, composition or judicial proceedings affected the Company, or its creditors or property, the Trustee shall have power to intervene in such proceedings and take any action therein that may be permitted by the court and shall (except as may be otherwise provided by law) be entitled to file such proofs of claim and other papers and documents as may be necessary or advisable in order to have the claims of the Trustee and of the holders of Securities of such series allowed for the entire amount due and payable by the Company under this Indenture at the date of institution of such proceedings and for any additional amount that may become due and payable by the Company after such date, and to collect and receive any moneys or other property payable or deliverable on any such claim, and to distribute the same after the deduction of the amount payable to the Trustee under Section 7.06; and any receiver, assignee or trustee in bankruptcy or reorganization is hereby authorized by each of the holders of Securities of such series to make such payments to the Trustee, and, in the event that the Trustee shall consent to the making of such payments directly to such Securityholders, to pay to the Trustee any amount due it under Section 7.06.
 
(d) All rights of action and of asserting claims under this Indenture, or under any of the terms established with respect to Securities of that series, may be enforced by the Trustee without the possession of any of such Securities, or the production thereof at any trial or other proceeding relative thereto, and any such suit or proceeding instituted by the Trustee shall be brought in its own name as trustee of an express trust, and any recovery of judgment shall, after provision for payment to the Trustee of any amounts due under Section 7.06, be for the ratable benefit of the holders of the Securities of such series.
 
In case of an Event of Default hereunder, the Trustee may in its discretion proceed to protect and enforce the rights vested in it by this Indenture by such appropriate judicial proceedings as the Trustee shall deem most effectual to protect and enforce any of such rights, either at law or in equity or in bankruptcy or otherwise, whether for the specific enforcement of any covenant or agreement contained in this Indenture or in aid of the exercise of any power granted in this Indenture, or to enforce any other legal or equitable right vested in the Trustee by this Indenture or by law.
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Nothing contained herein shall be deemed to authorize the Trustee to authorize or consent to or accept or adopt on behalf of any Securityholder any plan of reorganization, arrangement, adjustment or composition affecting the Securities of that series or the rights of any holder thereof or to authorize the Trustee to vote in respect of the claim of any Securityholder in any such proceeding.
 
SECTION 6.03 Application of Moneys Collected.
 
Any moneys collected by the Trustee pursuant to this Article with respect to a particular series of Securities shall be applied in the following order, at the date or dates fixed by the Trustee and, in case of the distribution of such moneys on account of principal (or premium, if any) or interest, upon presentation of the Securities of that series, and notation thereon the payment, if only partially paid, and upon surrender thereof if fully paid:
 
FIRST:  To the payment of costs and expenses of collection and of all amounts payable to the Trustee under Section 7.06; and
 
SECOND:  To the payment of the amounts then due and unpaid upon Securities of such series for principal (and premium, if any) and interest, in respect of which or for the benefit of which such money has been collected, ratably, without preference or priority of any kind, according to the amounts due and payable on such Securities for principal (and premium, if any) and interest, respectively.
 
SECTION 6.04 Limitation on Suits.
 
No holder of any Security of any series shall have any right by virtue or by availing of any provision of this Indenture to institute any suit, action or proceeding in equity or at law upon or under or with respect to this Indenture or for the appointment of a receiver or trustee, or for any other remedy hereunder, unless (i) such holder previously shall have given to the Trustee written notice of an Event of Default and of the continuance thereof with respect to the Securities of such series specifying such Event of Default, as hereinbefore provided; (ii) the holders of not less than a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of such series then Outstanding shall have made written request upon the Trustee to institute such action, suit or proceeding in its own name as trustee hereunder; (iii) such holder or holders shall have offered to the Trustee such reasonable indemnity as it may require against the costs, expenses and liabilities to be incurred therein or thereby; and (iv) the Trustee for 60 days after its receipt of such notice, request and offer of indemnity, shall have failed to institute any such action, suit or proceeding and (v) during such 60 day period, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the Securities of that series (or such amount as shall have acted at a meeting of the holders of Securities of such series pursuant to the provisions of this Indenture) do not give the Trustee a direction inconsistent with the request; provided, however, that no one or more of such holders may use this Indenture to prejudice the rights of another holder or to obtain preference or priority over another holder.
 
Notwithstanding anything contained herein to the contrary, any other provisions of this Indenture, the right of any holder of any Security to receive payment of the principal of (and premium, if any) and interest on such Security, as therein provided, on or after the respective due dates expressed in such Security (or in the case of redemption, on the redemption date), or to institute suit for the enforcement of any such payment on or after such respective dates or redemption date, shall not be impaired or affected without the consent of such holder and by accepting a Security hereunder it is expressly understood, intended and covenanted by the taker and holder of every Security of such series with every other such taker and holder and the Trustee, that no one or more holders of Securities of such series shall have any right in any manner whatsoever by virtue or by availing of any provision of this Indenture to affect, disturb or prejudice the rights of the holders of any other of such Securities, or to obtain or seek to obtain priority over or preference to any other such holder, or to enforce any right under this Indenture, except in the manner herein provided and for the equal, ratable and common benefit of all holders of Securities of such series.  For the protection and enforcement of the provisions of this Section, each and every Securityholder and the Trustee shall be entitled to such relief as can be given either at law or in equity.
 
SECTION 6.05 Rights and Remedies Cumulative; Delay or Omission Not Waiver.
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(a) Except as otherwise provided in Section 2.07, all powers and remedies given by this Article to the Trustee or to the Securityholders shall, to the extent permitted by law, be deemed cumulative and not exclusive of any other powers and remedies available to the Trustee or the holders of the Securities, by judicial proceedings or otherwise, to enforce the performance or observance of the covenants and agreements contained in this Indenture or otherwise established with respect to such Securities.
 
(b) No delay or omission of the Trustee or of any holder of any of the Securities to exercise any right or power accruing upon any Event of Default occurring and continuing as aforesaid shall impair any such right or power, or shall be construed to be a waiver of any such default or on acquiescence therein; and, subject to the provisions of Section 6.04, every power and remedy given by this Article or by law to the Trustee or the Securityholders may be exercised from time to time, and as often as shall be deemed expedient, by the Trustee or by the Securityholders.
 
SECTION 6.06 Control by Securityholders.
 
The holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of any series at the time Outstanding, determined in accordance with Section 8.01, shall have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the Trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred on the Trustee with respect to such series; provided, however, that such direction shall not be in conflict with any rule of law or with this Indenture or be unduly prejudicial to the rights of holders of Securities of any other series at the time Outstanding determined in accordance with Section 8.01.  Subject to the provisions of Section 7.01, the Trustee shall have the right to decline to follow any such direction if the Trustee in good faith shall, by a Responsible Officer or Officers of the Trustee, determine that the proceeding so directed would involve the Trustee in personal liability.  The holders either (a) through the written consent of not less than a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of any series at the time Outstanding or (b) by action at a meeting of holders of the Securities of such series in accordance with Section 8.09, by the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of such series then Outstanding represented at such meeting, may on behalf of the holders of all of the Securities of such series waive any past default in the performance of any of the covenants contained herein or established pursuant to Section 2.01 with respect to such series and its consequences, except a default in the payment of the principal of, or premium, if any, or interest on, any of the Securities of that series as and when the same shall become due by the terms of such Securities otherwise than by acceleration (unless such default has been cured and a sum sufficient to pay all matured installments of interest and principal and any premium has been deposited with the Trustee (in accordance with Section 6.01(c)) and except in respect a provision hereof which, under Section 9.02, cannot be modified or amended without the consent of the holders of each Outstanding Security affected; provided however that this Section shall not limit the right of holders of Securities of a series to rescind and annul any acceleration as set forth in Section 6.01.  Upon any such waiver, the default covered thereby shall be deemed to be cured for all purposes of this Indenture and the Company, the Trustee and the holders of the Securities of such series shall be restored to their former positions and rights hereunder, respectively; but no such waiver shall extend to any subsequent or other default or impair any right consequent thereon.  The provisions which otherwise would be automatically deemed to be contained in this Indenture pursuant to Section (316)(a)(1) of the Trust Indenture Act are hereby expressly excluded from this Indenture, except to the extent such provisions are expressly included herein.
 
SECTION 6.07 Undertaking to Pay Costs.
 
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All parties to this Indenture agree, and each holder of any Securities by such holder’s acceptance thereof shall be deemed to have agreed, that any court may in its discretion require, in any suit for the enforcement of any right or remedy under this Indenture, or in any suit against the Trustee for any action taken or omitted by it as Trustee, the filing by any party litigant in such suit of an undertaking to pay the costs of such suit, and that such court may in its discretion assess reasonable costs, including reasonable attorneys’ fees, against any party litigant in such suit, having due regard to the merits and good faith of the claims or defenses made by such party litigant; but the provisions of this Section shall not apply to any suit instituted by the Trustee, to any suit instituted by any Securityholder, or group of Securityholders, holding more than 10% in aggregate principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of any series, or to any suit instituted by any Securityholder for the enforcement of the payment of the principal of (or premium, if any) or interest on any Security of such series, on or after the respective due dates expressed in such Security or established pursuant to this Indenture.

ARTICLE VII
 
CONCERNING THE TRUSTEE
 
SECTION 7.01 Certain Duties and Responsibilities of Trustee.
 
(a) The Trustee, prior to the occurrence of an Event of Default with respect to the Securities of a series and after the curing of all Events of Default with respect to the Securities of that series that may have occurred, shall undertake to perform with respect to the Securities of such series such duties and only such duties as are specifically set forth in this Indenture, and no implied covenants shall be read into this Indenture against the Trustee.  In case an Event of Default with respect to the Securities of a series has occurred (that has not been cured or waived), the Trustee shall exercise with respect to Securities of that series such of the rights and powers vested in it by this Indenture, and use the same degree of care and skill in their exercise, as a prudent man would exercise or use under the circumstances in the conduct of his own affairs.
 
(b) No provision of this Indenture shall be construed to relieve the Trustee from liability for its own negligent action, its own negligent failure to act, or its own willful misconduct, except that:
 
(1) prior to the occurrence of an Event of Default with respect to the Securities of a series and after the curing or waiving of all such Events of Default with respect to that series that may have occurred:
 
(i) the duties and obligations of the Trustee shall with respect to the Securities of such series be determined solely by the express provisions of this Indenture, and the Trustee shall not be liable with respect to the Securities of such series except for the performance of such duties and obligations as are specifically set forth in this Indenture, and no implied covenants or obligations shall be read into this Indenture against the Trustee; and
  
(ii) in the absence of bad faith on the part of the Trustee, the Trustee may with respect to the Securities of such series conclusively rely, as to the truth of the statements and the correctness of the opinions expressed therein, upon any certificates or opinions furnished to the Trustee and conforming to the requirements of this Indenture; but in the case of any such certificates or opinions that by any provision hereof are specifically required to be furnished to the Trustee, the Trustee shall be under a duty to examine the same to determine whether or not they conform to the requirement of this Indenture;
 
(2) the Trustee shall not be liable for any error of judgment made in good faith by a Responsible Officer or Responsible Officers of the Trustee, unless it shall be proved that the Trustee, was negligent in ascertaining the pertinent facts;
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(3) the Trustee shall not be liable with respect to any action taken or omitted to be taken by it in good faith in accordance with the direction of the holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of the Securities of any series at the time Outstanding relating to the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the Trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred upon the Trustee under this Indenture with respect to the Securities of that series; and
 
(4) None of the provisions contained in this Indenture shall require the Trustee to expend or risk its own funds or otherwise incur personal financial liability in the performance of any of its duties or in the exercise of any of its rights or powers, if there is reasonable ground for believing that the repayment of such funds or liability is not reasonably assured to it under the terms of this Indenture or adequate indemnity against such risk is not reasonably assured to it.
 
SECTION 7.02 Certain Rights of Trustee.
 
Except as otherwise provided in Section 7.01:
 
(a) The Trustee may rely and shall be protected in acting or refraining from acting upon any resolution, certificate, statement, instrument, opinion, report, notice, request, consent, order, approval, bond, security or other paper or document believed by it to be genuine and to have been signed or presented by the proper party or parties;
 
(b) Any request, direction, order or demand of the Company mentioned herein shall be sufficiently evidenced by a Board Resolution or an instrument signed in the name of the Company, by the President or any Vice President and by the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary or the Treasurer or an Assistant Treasurer thereof (unless other evidence in respect thereof is specifically prescribed herein);
 
(c) The Trustee may consult with counsel and the written advice of such counsel or any Opinion of Counsel shall be full and complete authorization and protection in respect of any action taken or suffered or omitted hereunder in good faith and in reliance thereon;
 
(d) The Trustee shall be under no obligation to exercise any of the rights or powers vested in it by this Indenture at the request, order or direction of any of the Securityholders, pursuant to the provisions of this Indenture, unless such Securityholders shall have offered to the Trustee reasonable security or indemnity against the costs, expenses and liabilities that may be incurred therein or thereby; nothing contained herein shall, however, relieve the Trustee of the obligation, upon the occurrence of an Event of Default with respect to a series of the Securities (that has not been cured or waived) to exercise with respect to Securities of that series such of the rights and powers vested in it by this Indenture, and to use the same degree of care and skill in their exercise, as a prudent man would exercise or use under the circumstances in the conduct of his own affairs;
  
(e) The Trustee shall not be liable for any action taken or omitted to be taken by it in good faith and believed by it to be authorized or within the discretion or rights or powers conferred upon it by this Indenture;
 
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(f) The Trustee shall not be bound to make any investigation into the facts or matters stated in any resolution, certificate, statement, instrument, opinion, report, notice, request, consent, order, approval, bond, security, or other papers or documents, unless requested in writing so to do by the holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of the particular series affected thereby (determined as provided in Section 8.04); provided, however, that if the payment within a reasonable time to the Trustee of the costs, expenses or liabilities likely to be incurred by it in the making of such investigation is, in the opinion of the Trustee, not reasonably assured to the Trustee by the security afforded to it by the terms of this Indenture, the Trustee may require reasonable indemnity against such costs, expenses or liabilities as a condition to so proceeding.  The reasonable expense of every such examination shall be paid by the Company or, if paid by the Trustee, shall be repaid by the Company upon demand; and
 
(g) The Trustee may execute any of the trusts or powers hereunder or perform any duties hereunder either directly or by or through agents or attorneys and the Trustee shall not be responsible for any misconduct or negligence on the part of any agent or attorney appointed with due care by it hereunder.
 
SECTION 7.03 Trustee Not Responsible for Recitals or Issuance of Securities.
 
(a) The recitals contained herein and in the Securities shall be taken as the statements of the Company, and the Trustee assumes no responsibility for the correctness of the same.
 
(b) The Trustee makes no representations as to the validity or sufficiency of this Indenture or of the Securities.
 
(c) The Trustee shall not be accountable for the use or application by the Company of any of the Securities or of the proceeds of such Securities, or for the use or application of any moneys paid over by the Trustee in accordance with any provision of this Indenture or established pursuant to Section 2.01, or for the use or application of any moneys received by any paying agent other than the Trustee.
 
SECTION 7.04 May Hold Securities.
 
The Trustee or any paying agent or Security Registrar, in its individual or any other capacity, may become the owner or pledgee of Securities with the same rights it would have if it were not Trustee, paying agent or Security Registrar.
 
SECTION 7.05 Moneys Held in Trust.
 
Subject to the provisions of Section 11.05, all moneys received by the Trustee shall, until used or applied as herein provided, be held in trust for the purposes for which they were received, but need not be segregated from other funds except to the extent required by law.  The Trustee shall be under no liability for interest on any moneys received by it hereunder except such as it may agree with the Company to pay thereon.
 
SECTION 7.06 Compensation and Reimbursement.
 
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(a) The Company covenants and agrees to pay to the Trustee, and the Trustee shall be entitled to, such reasonable compensation (which shall not be limited by any provision of law in regard to the compensation of a trustee of an express trust), as the Company, and the Trustee may from time to time agree in writing, for all services rendered by it in the execution of the trusts hereby created and in the exercise and performance of any of the powers and duties hereunder of the Trustee, and, except as otherwise expressly provided herein, the Company will pay or reimburse the Trustee upon its request for all reasonable expenses, disbursements and advances incurred or made by the Trustee in accordance with any of the provisions of this Indenture (including the reasonable compensation and the expenses and disbursements of its counsel and of all Persons not regularly in its employ) except any such expense, disbursement or advance as may arise from its negligence or bad faith.  The Company also covenants to indemnify the Trustee (and its officers, agents, directors and employees) for, and to hold it harmless against, any loss, liability or expense incurred without negligence or bad faith on the part of the Trustee and arising out of or in connection with the acceptance or administration of this trust, including the costs and expenses of defending itself against any claim of liability in the premises.
 
(b) The obligations of the Company under this Section to compensate and indemnify the Trustee and to pay or reimburse the Trustee for expenses, disbursements and advances shall constitute additional indebtedness hereunder.  Such additional indebtedness shall be secured by a lien prior to that of the Securities upon all property and funds held or collected by the Trustee as such, except funds held in trust for the benefit of the holders of particular Securities.
 
SECTION 7.07 Reliance on Officers’ Certificate.
 
Except as otherwise provided in Section 7.01, whenever in the administration of the provisions of this Indenture the Trustee shall deem it necessary or desirable that a matter be proved or established prior to taking or suffering or omitting to take any action hereunder, such matter (unless other evidence in respect thereof be herein specifically prescribed) may, in the absence of negligence or bad faith on the part of the Trustee, be deemed to be conclusively proved and established by an Officers’ Certificate delivered to the Trustee and such certificate, in the absence of negligence or bad faith on the part of the Trustee, shall be full warrant to the Trustee for any action taken, suffered or omitted to be taken by it under the provisions of this Indenture upon the faith thereof.
 
SECTION 7.08 Disqualification; Conflicting Interests.
 
If the Trustee has or shall acquire any “conflicting interest” within the meaning of Section 310(b) of the Trust Indenture Act, the Trustee and the Company shall in all respects comply with the provisions of Section 310(b) of the Trust Indenture Act.
 
SECTION 7.09 Corporate Trustee Required; Eligibility.
 
There shall at all times be a Trustee with respect to the Securities issued hereunder which shall at all times be a corporation organized and doing business under the laws of the United States of America or any State or Territory thereof or of the District of Columbia, or a corporation or other Person permitted to act as trustee by the Commission, authorized under such laws to exercise corporate trust powers, having a combined capital and surplus of at least 50 million U.S. dollars ($50,000,000), and subject to supervision or examination by Federal, State, Territorial, or District of Columbia authority.  If such corporation publishes reports of condition at least annually, pursuant to law or to the requirements of the aforesaid supervising or examining authority, then for the purposes of this Section, the combined capital and surplus of such corporation shall be deemed to be its combined capital and surplus as set forth in its most recent report of condition so published.  The Company may not, nor may any Person directly or indirectly controlling, controlled by, or under common control with the Company, serve as Trustee.  In case at any time the Trustee shall cease to be eligible in accordance with the provisions of this Section, the Trustee shall resign immediately in the manner and with the effect specified in Section 7.10.
 
SECTION 7.10 Resignation and Removal; Appointment of Successor.
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(a) The Trustee or any successor hereafter appointed, may at any time resign with respect to the Securities of one or more series by giving written notice thereof to the Company and by transmitting notice of resignation by mail, first class postage prepaid, to the Securityholders of such series, as their names and addresses appear upon the Security Register.  Upon receiving such notice of resignation, the Company shall promptly appoint a successor trustee with respect to Securities of such series by written instrument, in duplicate, executed by order of the Board of Directors, one copy of which instrument shall be delivered to the resigning Trustee and one copy to the successor trustee.  If no successor trustee shall have been so appointed and have accepted appointment within 30 days after the mailing of such notice of resignation, the resigning Trustee may petition any court of competent jurisdiction for the appointment of a successor trustee with respect to Securities of such series, or any Securityholder of that series who has been a bona fide holder of a Security or Securities for at least six months may on behalf of himself and all others similarly situated, petition any such court for the appointment of a successor trustee.  Such court may thereupon after such notice, if any, as it may deem proper and prescribe, appoint a successor trustee.
 
(b) In case at any time any one of the following shall occur:
 
(1) the Trustee shall fail to comply with the provisions of Section 7.08 after written request therefor by the Company or by any Securityholder who has been a bona fide holder of a Security or Securities for at least six months; or
 
(2) the Trustee shall cease to be eligible in accordance with the provisions of Section 7.09 and shall fail to resign after written request therefor by the Company or by any such Securityholder; or
 
(3) the Trustee shall become incapable of acting, or shall be adjudged a bankrupt or insolvent, or commence a voluntary bankruptcy proceeding, or a receiver of the Trustee or of its property shall be appointed or consented to, or any public officer shall take charge or control of the Trustee or of its property or affairs for the purpose of rehabilitation, conservation or liquidation, then, in any such case, the Company may remove the Trustee with respect to all Securities and appoint a successor trustee by written instrument, in duplicate, executed by order of the Board of Directors, one copy of which instrument shall be delivered to the Trustee so removed and one copy to the successor trustee, or, unless the Trustee’s duty to resign is stayed as provided herein, any Securityholder who has been a bona fide holder of a Security or Securities for at least six months may, on behalf of that holder and all others similarly situated, petition any court of competent jurisdiction for the removal of the Trustee and the appointment of a successor trustee.  Such court may thereupon after such notice, if any, as it may deem proper and prescribe, remove the Trustee and appoint a successor trustee.
 
(c) The holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of any series at the time Outstanding may at any time remove the Trustee with respect to such series by so notifying the Trustee and the Company and may appoint a successor Trustee for such series with the consent of the Company.
 
(d) Any resignation or removal of the Trustee and appointment of a successor trustee with respect to the Securities of a series pursuant to any of the provisions of this Section shall become effective upon acceptance of appointment by the successor trustee as provided in Section 7.11.
 
(e) Any successor trustee appointed pursuant to this Section may be appointed with respect to the Securities of one or more series or all of such series, and at any time there shall be only one Trustee with respect to the Securities of any particular series.
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SECTION 7.11 Acceptance of Appointment By Successor.
 
(a) In case of the appointment hereunder of a successor trustee with respect to all Securities, every such successor trustee so appointed shall execute, acknowledge and deliver to the Company and to the retiring Trustee an instrument accepting such appointment, and thereupon the resignation or removal of the retiring Trustee shall become effective and such successor trustee, without any further act, deed or conveyance, shall become vested with all the rights, powers, trusts and duties 
of the retiring Trustee; but, on the request of the Company or the successor trustee, such retiring Trustee shall, upon payment of its charges, execute and deliver an instrument transferring to such successor trustee all the rights, powers, and trusts of the retiring Trustee and shall duly assign, transfer and deliver to such successor trustee all property and money held by such retiring Trustee hereunder.
 
(b) In case of the appointment hereunder of a successor trustee with respect to the Securities of one or more (but not all) series, the Company, the retiring Trustee and each successor trustee with respect to the Securities of one or more series shall execute and deliver an indenture supplemental hereto wherein each successor trustee shall accept such appointment and which (1) shall contain such provisions as shall be necessary or desirable to transfer and confirm to, and to vest in, each successor trustee all the rights, powers, trusts and duties of the retiring Trustee with respect to the Securities of that or those series to which the appointment of such successor trustee relates, (2) shall contain such provisions as shall be deemed necessary or desirable to confirm that all the rights, powers, trusts and duties of the retiring Trustee with respect to the Securities of that or those series as to which the retiring Trustee is not retiring shall continue to be vested in the retiring Trustee, and (3) shall add to or change any of the provisions of this Indenture as shall be necessary to provide for or facilitate the administration of the trusts hereunder by more than one Trustee, it being understood that nothing herein or in such supplemental indenture shall constitute such Trustees co-trustees of the same trust, that each such Trustee shall be trustee of a trust or trusts hereunder separate and apart from any trust or trusts hereunder administered by any other such Trustee and that no Trustee shall be responsible for any act or failure to act on the part of any other Trustee hereunder; and upon the execution and delivery of such supplemental indenture the resignation or removal of the retiring Trustee shall become effective to the extent provided therein, such retiring Trustee shall with respect to the Securities of that or those series to which the appointment of such successor trustee relates have no further responsibility for the exercise of rights and powers or for the performance of the duties and obligations vested in the Trustee under this Indenture, and each such successor trustee, without any further act, deed or conveyance, shall become vested with all the rights, powers, trusts and duties of the retiring Trustee with respect to the Securities of that or those series to which the appointment of such successor trustee relates; but, on request of the Company or any successor trustee, such retiring Trustee shall duly assign, transfer and deliver to such successor trustee, to the extent contemplated by such supplemental indenture, the property and money held by such retiring Trustee hereunder with respect to the Securities of that or those series to which the appointment of such successor trustee relates.
 
(c) Upon request of any such successor trustee, the Company shall execute any and all instruments for more fully and certainly vesting in and confirming to such successor trustee all such rights, powers and trusts referred to in paragraph (a) or (b) of this Section, as the case may be.
 
(d) No successor trustee shall accept its appointment unless at the time of such acceptance such successor trustee shall be qualified and eligible under this Article.
 
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(e) Upon acceptance of appointment by a successor trustee as provided in this Section, the Company shall transmit notice of the succession of such trustee hereunder by mail, first class postage prepaid, to the Securityholders, as their names and addresses appear upon the Security Register.  If the Company fails to transmit such notice within ten days after acceptance of appointment by the successor trustee, the successor trustee shall cause such notice to be transmitted at the expense of the Company.
 
SECTION 7.12 Merger, Conversion, Consolidation or Succession to Business.
 
Any corporation into which the Trustee may be merged or converted or with which it may be consolidated, or any corporation resulting from any merger, conversion or consolidation to which the Trustee shall be a party, or any corporation succeeding to the corporate trust business of the Trustee, shall be the successor of the Trustee hereunder, provided that such corporation shall be qualified under the provisions of Section 7.08 and eligible under the provisions of Section 7.09, without the execution or filing of any paper or any further act on the part of any of the 
parties hereto, anything herein to the contrary notwithstanding.  In case any Securities shall have been authenticated, but not delivered, by the Trustee then in office, any successor by merger, conversion or consolidation to such authenticating Trustee may adopt such authentication and deliver the Securities so authenticated with the same effect as if such successor Trustee had itself authenticated such Securities.
 
SECTION 7.13 Preferential Collection of Claims Against the Company.
 
The Trustee shall comply with Section 311(a) of the Trust Indenture Act, excluding any creditor relationship described in Section 311(b) of the Trust Indenture Act.  A Trustee who has resigned or been removed shall be subject to Section 311(a) of the Trust Indenture Act to the extent included therein.

ARTICLE VIII
 
CONCERNING THE SECURITYHOLDERS
 
SECTION 8.01 Evidence of Action by Securityholders.
 
Whenever in this Indenture it is provided that the holders of a majority or specified percentage in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of a particular series may take any action (including the making of any demand or request, the giving of any notice, consent or waiver or the taking of any other action), the fact that at the time of taking any such action the holders of such majority or specified percentage of that series have joined therein may be evidenced by any instrument or any number of instruments of similar tenor executed by such holders of Securities of that series in Person or by agent or proxy appointed in writing.
 
If the Company shall solicit from the Securityholders of any series any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action, the Company may, at its option, as evidenced by an Officers’ Certificate, fix in advance a record date for such series for the determination of Securityholders entitled to give such request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action, but the Company shall have no obligation to do so.  If such a record date is fixed, such request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action may be given before or after the record date, but only the Securityholders of record at the close of business on the record date shall be deemed to be Securityholders for the purposes of determining whether Securityholders of the requisite proportion of Outstanding Securities of that series have authorized or agreed or consented to such request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action, and for that purpose the Outstanding Securities of that series shall be computed as of the record date; provided, however, that no such authorization, agreement or consent by such Securityholders on the record date shall be deemed effective unless it shall become effective pursuant to the provisions of this Indenture not later than six months after the record date.
 
SECTION 8.02 Proof of Execution by Securityholders.
 
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Subject to the provisions of Section 7.01, proof of the execution of any instrument by a Securityholder (such proof will not require notarization) or his agent or proxy and proof of the holding by any Person of any of the Securities shall be sufficient if made in the following manner:
 
(a) The fact and date of the execution by any such Person of any instrument may be proved in any reasonable manner acceptable to the Trustee.
 
(b) The ownership of Securities shall be proved by the Security Register of such Securities or by a certificate of the Security Registrar thereof.
 
(c) The Trustee may require such additional proof of any matter referred to in this Section as it shall deem necessary.
  
SECTION 8.03 Who May be Deemed Owners.
 
Prior to the due presentment for registration of transfer of any Security, the Company, the Trustee, any paying agent and any Security Registrar may deem and treat the Person in whose name such Security shall be registered upon the books of the Company as the absolute owner of such Security (whether or not such Security shall be overdue and notwithstanding any notice of ownership or writing thereon made by anyone other than the Security Registrar) for the purpose of receiving payment of or on account of the principal of, premium, if any, and (subject to Section 2.03) interest on such Security and for all other purposes; and neither the Company nor the Trustee nor any paying agent nor any Security Registrar shall be affected by any notice to the contrary.
 
SECTION 8.04 Certain Securities Owned by Company Disregarded.
 
In determining whether the holders of the requisite aggregate principal amount of Securities of a particular series have concurred in any direction, consent of waiver under this Indenture, the Securities of that series that are owned by the Company or any other obligor on the Securities of that series or by any Person directly or indirectly controlling or controlled by or under common control with the Company or any other obligor on the Securities of that series shall be disregarded and deemed not to be Outstanding for the purpose of any such determination, except that for the purpose of determining whether the Trustee shall be protected in relying on any such direction, consent or waiver, only Securities of such series that the Trustee actually knows are so owned shall be so disregarded.  The Securities so owned that have been pledged in good faith may be regarded as Outstanding for the purposes of this Section, if the pledgee shall establish to the satisfaction of the Trustee the pledgee’s right so to act with respect to such Securities and that the pledgee is not a Person directly or indirectly controlling or controlled by or under direct or indirect common control with the Company or any such other obligor.  In case of a dispute as to such right, any decision by the Trustee taken upon the advice of counsel shall be full protection to the Trustee.
 
SECTION 8.05 Actions Binding on Future Securityholders.
 
At any time prior to (but not after) the evidencing to the Trustee, as provided in Section 8.01, of the taking of any action by the holders of the majority or percentage in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of a particular series specified in this Indenture in connection with such action, any holder of a Security of that series that is shown by the evidence to be included in the Securities the holders of which have consented to such action may, by filing written notice with the Trustee, and upon proof of holding as provided in Section 8.02, revoke such action so far as concerns such Security.  Except as aforesaid any such action taken by the holder of any Security shall be conclusive and binding upon such holder and upon all future holders and owners of such Security, and of any Security issued in exchange therefor, on registration of transfer thereof or in place thereof, irrespective of whether or not any notation in regard thereto is made upon such Security.  Any action taken by the holders of the majority or percentage in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of a particular series specified in this Indenture in connection with such action shall be conclusively binding upon the Company, the Trustee and the holders of all the Securities of that series.
 
SECTION 8.06 Purposes for Which Meetings May Be Called.
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A meeting of holders of any series of Securities may be called at any time and from time to time pursuant to this Article to make, give or take any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action provided by this Indenture to be made, given or taken by holders of such series of Securities.
 
Notwithstanding anything contained in this Article VIII, the Trustee may, during the pendency of a Default or an Event of Default, call a meeting of holders of any series of Securities in accordance with its standard practices.
 
SECTION 8.07 Call Notice and Place of Meetings.
 
(a) The Trustee may at any time call a meeting of holders of any series of Securities for any purpose specified in Section 8.06 hereof, to be held at such time and at such place in The City of New York or San Diego, California.  Notice of every meeting of holders of any series of Securities, setting forth the time and the place of such meeting, in general terms the action proposed to be taken at such meeting and the percentage of the principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of such series which shall constitute a quorum at such meeting, shall be given, in the manner provided in Section 13.04 hereof, not less than 21 nor more than 180 days prior to the date fixed for the meeting to holders of Outstanding Securities of such series.
 
(b) In case at any time the Company, pursuant to a Board Resolution, or the holders of at least 10% in principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of any series shall have requested the Trustee to call a meeting of the holders of Securities of such series for any purpose specified in Section 8.06 hereof, by written request setting forth in reasonable detail the action proposed to be taken at the meeting, and the Trustee shall not have made the first publication of the notice of such meeting within 21 days after receipt of such request or shall not thereafter proceed to cause the meeting to be held as provided herein, then the Company or the holders of Securities of such series in the amount specified, as the case may be, may determine the time and the place in The City of New York or San Diego, California for such meeting and may call such meeting for such purposes by giving notice thereof as provided in paragraph (a) of this Section.
 
SECTION 8.08 Persons Entitled To Vote at Meetings.
 
To be entitled to vote at any meeting of holders of Securities of a given series, a Person shall be (a) a holder of one or more Outstanding Securities of such series or (b) a Person appointed by an instrument in writing as proxy for a holder or holders of one or more Outstanding Securities of such series by such holder or holders.  The only Persons who shall be entitled to be present or to speak at any meeting of holders shall be the Persons entitled to vote at such meeting and their counsel, any representatives of the Trustee and its counsel and any representatives of the Company and its counsel.
 
SECTION 8.09 Quorum; Action.
 
The Persons entitled to vote a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of a given series shall constitute a quorum with respect to a meeting of holders of Outstanding Securities of such series.  In the absence of a quorum within 30 minutes of the time appointed for any such meeting, the meeting shall, if convened at the request of holders of Securities of such series, be dissolved.  In any other case, the meeting may be adjourned for a period of not less than 10 days as determined by the chairman of the meeting prior to the adjournment of such meeting.  In the absence of a quorum at any such adjourned meeting, such adjourned meeting may be further adjourned for a period of not less than 10 days as determined by the chairman of the meeting prior to the adjournment of such adjourned meeting.  Notice of the reconvening of any adjourned meeting shall be given as provided in Section 8.07(a) hereof, except that such notice need be given only once and not less than five days prior to the date on which the meeting is scheduled to be reconvened.
 
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80673602v.2


At a meeting or an adjourned meeting duly reconvened and at which a quorum is present as aforesaid, any resolution and all matters (except as limited by the proviso to the first paragraph of Section 9.02 hereof) shall be effectively passed and decided if passed or decided by the Persons entitled to vote not less than a majority in aggregate principal amount of Outstanding Securities of a series represented and voting at such meeting with respect to a meeting of holders of Outstanding Securities of such series.
 
Any resolution passed or decisions taken at any meeting of holders of Securities duly held in accordance with this Section shall be binding on all the holders of Securities of such series, whether or not present or represented at the meeting.
 
SECTION 8.10 Determination of Voting Rights; Conduct and Adjournment of Meetings.
 
(a) Notwithstanding any other provisions of this Indenture, the Trustee may make such reasonable regulations as it may deem advisable for any meeting of holders of Securities in regard to proof of the holding of Securities and of the appointment of proxies and in regard to the appointment and duties of inspectors of votes, the submission and examination of proxies, certificates and other 
evidence of the right to vote, and such other matters concerning the conduct of the meeting as it shall deem appropriate.
 
(b) The Trustee shall, by an instrument in writing, appoint a temporary chairman (which may be the Trustee) of the meeting, unless the meeting shall have been called by the Company or by holders of Securities of a given series as provided in Section 8.07(b) hereof, in which case the Company or the holders of Securities of such series calling the meeting, as the case may be, shall in like manner appoint a temporary chairman.  A permanent chairman and a permanent secretary of the meeting shall be elected by vote of the Persons entitled to vote a majority in principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of such series represented at the meeting.
 
(c) At any meeting, each holder of a Security of the series in respect of which such meeting is being held or proxy shall be entitled to one vote for each $1,000 principal amount of Securities of such series held or represented by him; provided, however, that no vote shall be cast or counted at any meeting in respect of any Security of such series challenged as not Outstanding and ruled by the chairman of the meeting to be not Outstanding.  The chairman of the meeting shall have no right to vote, except as a holder of a Security of such series or proxy.
 
(d) Any meeting of holders of Securities duly called pursuant to Section 8.07 hereof at which a quorum is present may be adjourned from time to time by Persons entitled to vote a majority in principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of the series in respect of which such meeting is being held represented at the meeting, and the meeting may be held as so adjourned without further notice.
 
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80673602v.2


SECTION 8.11Counting Votes and Recording Action of Meetings.
 
The vote upon any resolution submitted to any meeting of holders of Securities of a given series shall be by written ballots on which shall be subscribed the signatures of the holders of Securities of such series or of their representatives by proxy and the principal amounts and serial numbers of the Outstanding Securities of such series held or represented by them.  The permanent chairman of the meeting shall appoint two inspectors of votes who shall count all votes cast at the meeting for or against any resolution and who shall make and file with the secretary of the meeting their verified written reports in duplicate of all votes cast at the meeting.  A record, at least in duplicate, of the proceedings of each meeting of holders of Securities of such series shall be prepared by the secretary of the meeting and there shall be attached to said record the original reports of the inspectors of votes on any vote by ballot taken thereat and affidavits by one or more Persons having knowledge of the facts setting forth a copy of the notice of the meeting and showing that said notice was given as provided in Section 8.07 hereof and, if applicable, Section 8.09 hereof. Each copy shall be signed and verified by the affidavits of the permanent chairman and secretary of the meeting and one such copy shall be delivered to the Company and another to the Trustee to be preserved by the Trustee, the latter to have attached thereto the ballots voted at the meeting.  Any record so signed and verified shall be conclusive evidence of the matters therein stated.

ARTICLE IX
 
SUPPLEMENTAL INDENTURES
 
SECTION 9.01 Supplemental Indentures Without the Consent of Securityholders.
 
In addition to any supplemental indenture otherwise authorized by this Indenture, the Company and the Trustee may from time to time and at any time enter into an indenture or indentures supplemental hereto (which shall conform to the provisions of the Trust Indenture Act as then in effect), without the consent of the Securityholders, for one or more of the following purposes:
 
(a) cure any ambiguity, correct or supplement any provision herein which may be inconsistent with any other provision herein or which is otherwise defective, or make any other provisions with respect to matters or questions arising under this Indenture which the Company and the Trustee 
may deem necessary or desirable and which shall not be inconsistent with the provisions of this Indenture;
 
(b) to comply with Article X;
 
(c) to provide for uncertificated Securities in addition to or in place of certificated Securities;
 
(d) to add to the covenants of the Company for the benefit of the holders of all or any Series of Securities (and if such covenants are to be for the benefit of less than all series of Securities, stating that such covenants are expressly being included solely for the benefit of such series) or to surrender any right or power herein conferred upon the Company;
 
(e) to add to, delete from, or revise the conditions, limitations, and restrictions on the authorized amount, terms, or purposes of issue, authentication, and delivery of Securities, as herein set forth;
 
(f) to make any change that does not adversely affect the rights of any Securityholder in any material respect;
 
(g) to provide for the issuance of and establish the form and terms and conditions of the Securities of any series as provided in Section 2.01, to establish the form of any certifications required to be furnished pursuant to the terms of this Indenture or any series of Securities, or to add to the rights of the holders of any series of Securities; or
 
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(h) comply with the requirements of the Commission in order to effect or maintain the qualification of this Indenture under the Trust Indenture Act.
 
The Trustee is hereby authorized to join with the Company in the execution of any such supplemental indenture, and to make any further appropriate agreements and stipulations that may be therein contained, but the Trustee shall not be obligated to enter into any such supplemental indenture that affects the Trustee’s own rights, duties or immunities under this Indenture or otherwise.
 
Any supplemental indenture authorized by the provisions of this Section may be executed by the Company and the Trustee without the consent of the holders of any of the Securities at the time Outstanding, notwithstanding any of the provisions of Section 9.02.
 
SECTION 9.02 Supplemental Indentures With Consent of Securityholders.
 
With the written consent of the holders of at least a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of any series or by action at a meeting of holders of the Securities of such series in accordance with Section 8.09, by the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of such series then Outstanding represented at such meeting, the Company, when authorized by Board Resolutions, and the Trustee may from time to time and at any time enter into an indenture or indentures supplemental hereto (which shall conform to the provisions of the Trust Indenture Act as then in effect) for the purpose of adding any provisions to or changing in any manner or eliminating any of the provisions of this Indenture or of any supplemental indenture or of modifying in any manner not covered by Section 9.01 the rights of the holders of the Securities of such series under this Indenture; provided, however, that no such supplemental indenture shall, without the consent of the holders of each Security then Outstanding and affected thereby, (i) extend the fixed maturity of any Securities of any series, or reduce the principal amount thereof, or reduce the rate or extend the time of payment of interest thereon, or reduce any premium payable upon the redemption thereof, (ii) reduce the aforesaid percentage of Securities, the holders of which are required to consent to any such supplemental indenture, or any consent or waiver, (iii) reduce the principal amount of discount securities payable upon acceleration of the maturity of any Securities of any series or (iv) make the principal of or premium or interest on any Security of a series payable in currency or currency units other than that stated in the Securities of such series.
 
It shall not be necessary for the consent of the Securityholders of any series affected thereby under this Section to approve the particular form of any proposed supplemental indenture, but it shall be sufficient if such consent shall approve the substance thereof.
 
SECTION 9.03 Effect of Supplemental Indentures.
 
Upon the execution of any supplemental indenture pursuant to the provisions of this Article or of Section 10.01, this Indenture shall, with respect to such series, be and be deemed to be modified and amended in accordance therewith and the respective rights, limitations of rights, obligations, duties and immunities under this Indenture of the Trustee, the Company and the holders of Securities of the series affected thereby shall thereafter be determined, exercised and enforced hereunder subject in all respects to such modifications and amendments, and all the terms and conditions of any such supplemental indenture shall be and be deemed to be part of the terms and conditions of this Indenture for any and all purposes.
 
SECTION 9.04 Securities Affected by Supplemental Indentures.
 
Securities of any series affected by a supplemental indenture, authenticated and delivered after the execution of such supplemental indenture pursuant to the provisions of this Article or of Section 10.01, may bear a notation in form approved by the Company, provided such form meets the requirements of any exchange upon which such series may be listed, as to any matter provided for in such supplemental indenture.  If the Company shall so determine, new Securities of that series so modified as to conform, in the opinion of the Board of Directors of the Company, to any modification of this Indenture contained in any such supplemental indenture may be prepared by the Company, authenticated by the Trustee and delivered in exchange for the Securities of that series then Outstanding.
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80673602v.2


 
SECTION 9.05 Execution of Supplemental Indentures.
 
Upon the request of the Company, accompanied by its Board Resolutions authorizing the execution of any such supplemental indenture, and upon the filing with the Trustee of evidence of the consent of Securityholders required to consent thereto as aforesaid, the Trustee shall join with the Company in the execution of such supplemental indenture unless such supplemental indenture affects the Trustee’s own rights, duties or immunities under this Indenture or otherwise, in which case the Trustee may in its discretion but shall not be obligated to enter into such supplemental indenture.  The Trustee, subject to the provisions of Section 7.01, may receive an Opinion of Counsel as conclusive evidence that any supplemental indenture executed pursuant to this Article is authorized or permitted by, and conforms to, the terms of this Article and that it is proper for the Trustee under the provisions of this Article to join in the execution thereof; provided, however, that such Opinion of Counsel need not be provided in connection with the execution of a supplemental indenture that establishes the terms of a series of Securities pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof.
 
Promptly after the execution by the Company and the Trustee of any supplemental indenture pursuant to the provisions of this Section, the Trustee shall transmit by mail, first class postage prepaid, a notice, setting forth in general terms the substance of such supplemental indenture, to the Securityholders of all series affected thereby as their names and addresses appear upon the Security Register.  Any failure of the Trustee to mail such notice, or any defect therein, shall not, however, in any way impair or affect the validity of any such supplemental indenture.

ARTICLE X
 
SUCCESSOR ENTITY
 
SECTION 10.01 Company May Consolidate, Etc.
 
Nothing contained in this Indenture or in any of the Securities shall prevent any consolidation or merger of the Company with or into any other Person (whether or not affiliated with the Company) or successive consolidations or mergers in which the Company or its successor or successors shall be a party or parties, or shall prevent any sale, conveyance, transfer or other disposition of the property of the Company or its successor or successors as an entirety, or substantially as an entirety, to any other corporation (whether or not affiliated with the Company or its 
successor or successors) authorized to acquire and operate the same; provided, however, the Company hereby covenants and agrees that, upon any such consolidation or merger (in each case, if the Company is not the survivor of such transaction), sale, conveyance, transfer or other disposition, the due and punctual payment of the principal of (premium, if any) and interest on all of the Securities of all series in accordance with the terms of each series, according to their tenor and the due and punctual performance and observance of all the covenants and conditions of this Indenture with respect to each series or established with respect to such series pursuant to Section 2.01 to be kept or performed by the Company shall be expressly assumed, by supplemental indenture (which shall conform to the provisions of the Trust Indenture Act, as then in effect) satisfactory in form to the Trustee executed and delivered to the Trustee by the entity formed by such consolidation, or into which the Company shall have been merged, or by the entity which shall have acquired such property.
 
SECTION 10.02 Successor Entity Substituted.
 
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80673602v.2


(a) In case of any such consolidation, merger, sale, conveyance, transfer or other disposition and upon the assumption by the successor entity by supplemental indenture, executed and delivered to the Trustee and satisfactory in form to the Trustee, of the due and punctual payment of the principal of, premium, if any, and interest on all of the Securities of all series Outstanding and the due and punctual performance of all of the covenants and conditions of this Indenture or established with respect to each series of the Securities pursuant to Section 2.01 to be performed by the Company with respect to each series, such successor entity shall succeed to and be substituted for the Company with the same effect as if it had been named as the Company herein, and thereupon the predecessor corporation shall be relieved of all obligations and covenants under this Indenture and the Securities.
 
(b) In case of any such consolidation, merger, sale, conveyance,  transfer or other disposition such changes in phraseology and form (but not in substance) may be made in the Securities thereafter to be issued as may be appropriate.
 
(c) Nothing contained in this Article shall require any action by the Company in the case of a consolidation or merger of any Person into the Company where the Company is the survivor of such transaction, or the acquisition by the Company, by purchase or otherwise, of all or any part of the property of any other Person (whether or not affiliated with the Company).
 
SECTION 10.03 Evidence of Consolidation, Etc. to Trustee.
 
The Trustee, subject to the provisions of Section 7.01, may receive an Opinion of Counsel as conclusive evidence that any such consolidation, merger, sale, conveyance, transfer or other disposition, and any such assumption, comply with the provisions of this Article.
 
ARTICLE XI
 
SATISFACTION AND DISCHARGE
 
SECTION 11.01 Satisfaction and Discharge of Indenture.
 
If at any time:  (a) the Company shall have delivered to the Trustee for cancellation all Securities of a series theretofore authenticated (other than any Securities that shall have been destroyed, lost or stolen and that shall have been replaced or paid as provided in Section 2.07) and Securities for whose payment money or Governmental Obligations have theretofore been deposited in trust or segregated and held in trust by the Company (and thereupon repaid to the Company or discharged from such trust, as provided in Section 11.05); or (b) all such Securities of a particular series not theretofore delivered to the Trustee for cancellation shall have become due and payable, or are by their terms to become due and payable within one year or are to be called for redemption within one year under arrangements satisfactory to the Trustee for the giving of notice of redemption, and the Company shall deposit or cause to be deposited with the Trustee as trust funds the entire amount in moneys or Governmental Obligations sufficient or a combination thereof, sufficient (assuming that no tax liability will be imposed on the Trustee) in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent public accountants expressed in a written certification thereof delivered to the Trustee, to pay at maturity or upon redemption all Securities of that series not theretofore delivered to the Trustee for cancellation, including principal (and premium, if any) and interest due or to become due to such date of maturity or date fixed for redemption, as the case may be, and if the Company shall also pay or cause to be paid all other sums payable hereunder with respect to such series by the Company then this Indenture shall thereupon cease to be of further effect with respect to such series except for the provisions of Sections 2.03, 2.05, 2.07, 4.01, 4.02, 4.03 and 7.10, that shall survive until the date of maturity or redemption date, as the case may be, and Sections 7.06 and 11.05, that shall survive to such date and thereafter, and the Trustee, on demand of the Company and at the cost and expense of the Company shall execute proper instruments acknowledging satisfaction of and discharging this Indenture with respect to such series.
 
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80673602v.2


SECTION 11.02 Discharge of Obligations.
 
If at any time all such Securities of a particular series not heretofore delivered to the Trustee for cancellation or that have not become due and payable as described in Section 11.01 shall have been paid by the Company by depositing irrevocably with the Trustee as trust funds moneys or an amount of Governmental Obligations sufficient to pay at maturity or upon redemption all such Securities of that series not theretofore delivered to the Trustee for cancellation, including principal (and premium, if any) and interest due or to become due to such date of maturity or date fixed for redemption, as the case may be, and if the Company shall also pay or cause to be paid all other sums payable hereunder by the Company with respect to such series, then after the date such moneys or Governmental Obligations, as the case may be, are deposited with the Trustee the obligations of the Company under this Indenture with respect to such series shall cease to be of further effect except for the provisions of Sections 2.03, 2.05, 2.07, 4,01, 4.02, 4.03, 7.06, 7.10 and 11.05 hereof that shall survive until such Securities shall mature and be paid thereafter, Sections 7.06 and 11.05 shall survive.
 
SECTION 11.03Deposited Moneys to be Held in Trust.
 
Subject to Section 11.05, all moneys or Governmental Obligations deposited with the Trustee pursuant to Sections 11.01 or 11.02 shall be held in trust and shall be available for payment as due, either directly or through any paying agent (including the Company acting as its own paying agent), to the holders of the particular series of Securities for the payment or redemption of which such moneys or Governmental Obligations have been deposited with the Trustee.
 
SECTION 11.04 Payment of Moneys Held by Paying Agents.
 
In connection with the satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture all moneys or Governmental Obligations then held by any paying agent under the provisions of this Indenture shall, upon demand of the Company, be paid to the Trustee and thereupon such paying agent shall be released from all further liability with respect to such moneys or Governmental Obligations.
 
SECTION 11.05 Repayment to Company.
 
Any moneys or Governmental Obligations deposited with any paying agent or the Trustee, or then held by the Company, in trust for payment of principal of or premium or interest on the Securities of a particular series that are not applied but remain unclaimed by the holders of such Securities for two years after the date upon which the principal of (and premium, if any) or interest on such Securities shall have respectively become due and payable, shall be repaid to the Company or (if then held by the Company) shall be discharged from such trust in each case, promptly after the end of any such two-year period or, at the request of the Company, on a later date specified by the Company; and thereupon the paying agent and the Trustee shall be released from all further liability with respect to such moneys or Governmental Obligations, and the holder of any of the Securities entitled to receive such payment shall thereafter, as an unsecured general creditor, look only to the Company for the payment thereof.

ARTICLE XII
 
IMMUNITY OF INCORPORATORS, STOCKHOLDERS, OFFICERS AND DIRECTORS
 
SECTION 12.01 No Recourse.
 
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80673602v.2


No recourse under or upon any obligation, covenant or agreement of this Indenture, or of any Security, or for any claim based thereon or otherwise in respect thereof, shall be had against any incorporator, stockholder, officer or director, past, present or future as such, of the Company or of any predecessor or successor corporation, either directly or through the Company or any such predecessor or successor corporation, whether by virtue of any constitution, statute or rule of law, or by the enforcement of any assessment or penalty or otherwise; it being expressly understood that this Indenture and the obligations issued hereunder are solely corporate obligations, and that no such personal liability whatever shall attach to, or is or shall be incurred by, the incorporators, stockholders, officers or directors as such, of the Company or of any predecessor or successor corporation, or any of them, because of the creation of the indebtedness hereby authorized, or under or by reason of the obligations, covenants or agreements contained in this Indenture or in any of the Securities or implied therefrom; and that any and all such personal liability of every name and nature, either at common law or in equity or by constitution or statute, of, and any and all such rights and claims against, every such incorporator, stockholder, officer or director as such, because of the creation of the indebtedness hereby authorized, or under or by reason of the obligations, covenants or agreements contained in this Indenture or in any of the Securities or implied therefrom, are hereby expressly waived and released as a condition of, and as a consideration for, the execution of this Indenture and the issuance of such Securities.

ARTICLE XIII
 
MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS
 
SECTION 13.01 Effect on Successors and Assigns.
 
All the covenants, stipulations, promises and agreements in this Indenture contained by or on behalf of the Company shall bind its successors and assigns, whether so expressed or not.
 
SECTION 13.02 Actions by Successor.
 
Any act or proceeding by any provision of this Indenture authorized or required to be done or performed by any board, committee or officer of the Company shall and may be done and performed with like force and effect by the corresponding board, committee or officer of any corporation that shall at the time be the lawful successor of the Company.
 
SECTION 13.03 Surrender of Company Powers.
 
The Company by instrument in writing executed by authority of its Board of Directors and delivered to the Trustee may surrender any of the powers reserved to the Company, and thereupon such power so surrendered shall terminate both as to the Company and as to any successor corporation.
 
SECTION 13.04 Notices.
 
Except as otherwise expressly provided herein any notice or demand that by any provision of this Indenture is required or permitted to be given or served by the Trustee or by the holders of Securities to or on the Company may be given or served by being deposited first class postage prepaid in a post-office letterbox addressed (until another address is filed in writing by the Company with the Trustee), as follows:  Daré Bioscience, Inc., Attn: [   ], 3655 Nobel Drive, Suite 260, San Diego, California 92122.  Any notice, election, request or demand by the Company or any Securityholder to or upon the Trustee shall be deemed to have been sufficiently given or made, for all purposes, if given or made in writing at the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee.  Any notice or communication to a holder shall be mailed by first-class mail to his address shown on the Security Register kept by the Security Registrar.
 
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Failure to mail a notice or communication to a holder or any defect in such notice or communication shall not affect its sufficiency with respect to other holders.  If a notice or communication is mailed or sent in the manner provided above within the time prescribed, it is duly given as of the date it is mailed, whether or not the addressee receives it, except that notice to the Trustee or the Company shall only be effective upon receipt thereof by the Trustee or the Company, respectively.  If the Company mails a notice or communication to holders of Securities, it shall mail a copy to the Trustee at the same time.
 
SECTION 13.05 Governing Law.
 
This Indenture and each Security shall be deemed to be a contract made under the internal laws of the State of New York, and for all purposes shall be construed in accordance with the laws of said State.
 

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80673602v.2


SECTION 13.06 Treatment of Securities as Debt.
 
It is intended that the Securities will be treated as indebtedness and not as equity for federal income tax purposes.  The provisions of this Indenture shall be interpreted to further this intention.
 
SECTION 13.07 Compliance Certificates and Opinions.
 
(a) Upon any application or demand by the Company to the Trustee to take any action under any of the provisions of this Indenture,  the Company, shall furnish to the Trustee an Officers’ Certificate stating that all conditions precedent provided for in this Indenture relating to the proposed action have been complied with and an Opinion of Counsel stating that in the opinion of such counsel all such conditions precedent have been complied with, except that in the case of any such application or demand as to which the furnishing of such documents is specifically required by any provision of this Indenture relating to such particular application or demand, no additional certificate or opinion need be furnished.
 
(b) Each certificate or opinion provided for in this Indenture and delivered to the Trustee with respect to compliance with a condition or covenant in this Indenture shall include (1) a statement that the Person making such certificate or opinion has read such covenant or condition; (2) a brief statement as to the nature and scope of the examination or investigation upon which the statements or opinions contained in such certificate or opinion are based; (3) a statement that, in the opinion of such Person, he has made such examination or investigation as is necessary to enable him to express an informed opinion as to whether or not such covenant or condition has been complied with; and (4) a statement as to whether or not, in the opinion of such Person, such condition or covenant has been complied with.
 
SECTION 13.08 Payments on Business Days.
 
Except as provided pursuant to Section 2.01 pursuant to a Board Resolution, and as set forth in an Officers’ Certificate, or established in one or more indentures supplemental to this Indenture, in any case where the date of maturity of interest or principal of any Security or the date of redemption of any Security shall not be a Business Day, then payment of interest or principal (and premium, if any) may be made on the next succeeding Business Day with the same force and effect as if made on the nominal date of maturity or redemption, and no interest shall accrue for the period after such nominal date.
 
SECTION 13.09 Conflict with Trust Indenture Act.
 
If and to the extent that any provision of this Indenture limits, qualifies or conflicts with the duties imposed by Sections 310 to 317, inclusive, of the Trust Indenture Act, such imposed duties shall control.
 
 
SECTION 13.10 Counterparts.
 
This Indenture may be executed in any number of counterparts, each of which shall be an original, but such counterparts shall together constitute but one and the same instrument.
 
SECTION 13.11 Separability.
 
In case any one or more of the provisions contained in this Indenture or in the Securities of any series shall for any reason be held to be invalid, illegal or unenforceable in any respect, such invalidity, illegality or unenforceability shall not affect any other provisions of this Indenture or of such Securities, but this Indenture and such Securities shall be construed as if such invalid or illegal or unenforceable provision had never been contained herein or therein.
 

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80673602v.2


SECTION 13.12 Assignment.
 
The Company will have the right at all times to assign any of its rights or obligations under this Indenture to a direct or indirect wholly-owned Subsidiary of the Company, provided that, in the event of any such assignment, the Company, will remain liable for all such obligations.  Subject to the foregoing, this Indenture is binding upon and inures to the benefit of the parties thereto and their respective successors and assigns.  This Indenture may not otherwise be assigned by the parties thereto.
 

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the parties hereto have caused this Indenture to be duly executed all as of the day and year first above written.
 
 
DARÉ BIOSCIENCE, INC.
  
  
By:
Name:
Title:
  
  
[                          ],
As Trustee
   
   
By:
Name:
Title:
 


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Document

Exhibit 4.9


DARÉ BIOSCIENCE, INC.

Issuer

AND

[ ] Trustee

INDENTURE

Dated as of [ ]

Subordinated Debt Securities



CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE (1)
Section of Trust
Indenture Act of
1939, as Amended
Section of
Indenture
   
310(a).7.09
310(b).7.08
7.10
   
310(c).Inapplicable
311(a).7.13(a)
311(b).7.13(b)
311(c).Inapplicable
312(a).5.02(a)
312(b).5.02(b)
312(c).5.02(c)
313(a).5.04(a)
313(b).5.04(a)
313(c).5.04(a)
5.04(b)
313(d).5.04(b)
314(a).5.03
314(b).Inapplicable
314(c).13.06
314(d).Inapplicable
314(e).13.06
314(f).Inapplicable
315(a).7.01(a)
7.02
315(b).6.07
315(c).7.01
315(d).7.01(b)
7.01(c)
315(e).6.07
316(a).6.06
8.04
316(b).6.04
316(c).8.01
317(a).6.02
317(b).4.03
318(a)13.08
 

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(1) This Cross-Reference Table does not constitute part of the Indenture and shall not have any bearing on the interpretation of any of its terms or provisions.



TABLE OF CONTENTS (2)
 
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(2) This Table of Contents does not constitute part of the Indenture and shall not have any bearing on the interpretation of any of its terms or provisions.



INDENTURE, dated as of [   ], by and between Daré Bioscience, Inc., a Delaware corporation (the “Company”), and [   ], as trustee (the “Trustee”):
 
WHEREAS, for its lawful corporate purposes, the Company has duly authorized the execution and delivery of this Indenture to provide for the issuance of subordinated debt securities (hereinafter referred to as the “Securities”), in an unlimited aggregate principal amount to be issued from time to time in one or more series as in this Indenture provided, as registered Securities without coupons, to be authenticated by the certificate of the Trustee;
 
WHEREAS, to provide the terms and conditions upon which the Securities are to be authenticated, issued and delivered, the Company has duly authorized the execution of this Indenture; and
 
WHEREAS, all things necessary to make this Indenture a valid agreement of the Company, in accordance with its terms, have been done.
 
NOW, THEREFORE, in consideration of the premises and the purchase of the Securities by the holders thereof, it is mutually covenanted and agreed as follows for the equal and ratable benefit of the holders of Securities:

ARTICLE I
 
DEFINITIONS
 
SECTION 1.01Definitions of Terms.
 
The terms defined in this Section (except as in this Indenture otherwise expressly provided or unless the context otherwise requires) for all purposes of this Indenture and of any indenture supplemental hereto shall have the respective meanings specified in this Section and shall include the plural as well as the singular.  All other terms used in this Indenture that are defined in the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, or that are by reference in such Act defined in the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (except as herein otherwise expressly provided or unless the context otherwise requires), shall have the meanings assigned to such terms in said Trust Indenture Act and in said Securities Act as in force at the date of the execution of this instrument.
 
“Authenticating Agent” means an authenticating agent with respect to all or any of the series of Securities appointed with respect to all or any series of the Securities by the Trustee pursuant to Section 2.10.
 
“Bankruptcy Law” means Title 11, U.S. Code, or any similar federal or state law for the relief of debtors.
 
“Board of Directors” means the Board of Directors of the Company or any duly authorized committee of such Board.
 
“Board Resolution” means a copy of a resolution certified by the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary of the Company to have been duly adopted by the Board of Directors and to be in full force and effect on the date of such certification.
 
“Business Day” means, with respect to any series of Securities, any day other than a day on which Federal or State banking institutions in the Borough of Manhattan, the City and State of New York, are authorized or obligated by law, executive order or regulation to close.
 
“Certificate” means a certificate signed by the principal executive officer, the principal financial officer or the principal accounting officer of the Company. The Certificate need not comply with the provisions of Section 13.07.
 
“Commission” means the Securities and Exchange Commission.
 
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“Company” means the corporation named as the “Company” in the first paragraph of this instrument until a successor corporation shall have become such pursuant to the applicable provisions of this Indenture, and thereafter “Company” shall mean such successor corporation.
 
“Corporate Trust Office” means the office of the Trustee at which, at any particular time, its corporate trust business shall be principally administered, which office at the date hereof is located at [ ], except that whenever a provision herein refers to an office or agency of the Trustee in the Borough of Manhattan, the City and State of New York, such office is located, at the date hereof, at [ ].
 
“Custodian” means any receiver, trustee, assignee, liquidator, or similar official under any Bankruptcy Law.
 
“Default” means an event which is, or after notice or lapse of time, or both, would constitute an Event of Default.
 
“Depositary” means, with respect to Securities of any series, for which the Company shall determine that such Securities will be issued as a Global Security, The Depository Trust Company, New York, New York, another clearing agency, or any successor registered as a clearing agency under the Exchange Act, or other applicable statute or regulation, which, in each case, shall be designated by the Company pursuant to either Section 2.01 or Section 2.11.
 
“Event of Default” means, with respect to Securities of a particular series, any event specified in Section 6.01, continued for the period of time, if any, therein designated.
 
“Exchange Act” means the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended.
 
“Global Security” means, with respect to any series of Securities, a Security executed by the Company and delivered by the Trustee to the Depositary or pursuant to the Depositary’s instruction, all in accordance with this Indenture, which shall be registered in the name of the Depositary or its nominee.
 
“Governmental Obligations” means securities that are (i) direct obligations of the United States of America for the payment of which its full faith and credit is pledged or (ii) obligations of a Person controlled or supervised by and acting as an agency or instrumentality of the United States of America, the payment of which is unconditionally guaranteed as a full faith and credit obligation by the United States of America that, in either case, are non-callable at the option of the issuer thereof, and shall also include a depositary receipt issued by a bank (as defined in Section 3(a)(2) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended) as custodian with respect to any such Governmental Obligation or a specific payment of principal of or interest on any such Governmental Obligation held by such custodian for the account of the holder of such depositary receipt; provided, however, that (except as required by law) such custodian is not authorized to make any deduction from the amount payable to the holder of such depositary receipt from any amount received by the custodian in respect of the Governmental Obligation or the specific payment of principal of or interest on the Governmental Obligation evidenced by such depositary receipt.
 
“herein,” “hereof” and “hereunder,” and other words of similar import, refer to this Indenture as a whole and not to any particular Article, Section or other subdivision.
 
“Indenture” means this instrument as originally executed or as it may from time to time be supplemented or amended by one or more indentures supplemental hereto entered into in accordance with the terms hereof.
 
“Interest Payment Date,” when used with respect to any installment of interest on a Security of a particular series, means the date specified in such Security or in a Board Resolution or in an indenture supplemental hereto with respect to such series as the fixed date on which an installment of interest with respect to Securities of that series is due and payable.
 
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“Officers’ Certificate” means a certificate signed by the President or a Vice President and by the Chief Financial Officer, Vice President of Finance, the Treasurer or an Assistant Treasurer or the Controller or an Assistant Controller or the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary of the Company that is delivered to the Trustee in accordance with the terms hereof. Certificate shall include the statements provided for in Section 13.07, if and to the extent required by the provisions thereof.
 
“Opinion of Counsel” means a written opinion of counsel, who may be counsel to the Company (and may include directors or employees of the Company) and which opinion is acceptable to the Trustee which acceptance shall not be unreasonably withheld.
 
“Outstanding”, when used with reference to Securities of any series, means, subject to the provisions of Section 8.04, as of any particular time, all Securities of that series theretofore authenticated and delivered by the Trustee under this Indenture, except (a) Securities theretofore canceled by the Trustee or any paying agent, or delivered to the Trustee or any paying agent for cancellation or that have previously been canceled; (b) Securities or portions thereof for the payment or redemption of which moneys or Governmental Obligations in the necessary amount shall have been deposited in trust with the Trustee or with any paying agent (other than the Company) or shall have been set aside and segregated in trust by the Company (if the Company shall act as its own paying agent); provided, however, that if such Securities or portions of such Securities are to be redeemed prior to the maturity thereof, notice of such redemption shall have been given as in Article III provided, or provision satisfactory to the Trustee shall have been made for giving such notice; and (c) Securities in lieu of or in substitution for which other Securities shall have been authenticated and delivered pursuant to the terms of Section 2.07.
 
“Person” means any individual, corporation, limited liability company, partnership, joint-venture, association, joint-stock company, trust, estate, unincorporated organization or government or any agency or political subdivision thereof.
 
“Predecessor Security” of any particular Security means every previous Security evidencing all or a portion of the same debt as that evidenced by such particular Security; and, for the purposes of this definition, any Security authenticated and delivered under Section 2.07 in lieu of a mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Security shall be deemed to evidence the same debt as the mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Security.
 
“Responsible Officer,” when used with respect to the Trustee, means any officer of the Trustee, including any vice president, assistant vice president, secretary, assistant secretary, the treasurer, any assistant treasurer, the managing director or any other officer of the Trustee customarily performing functions similar to those performed by any of the above designated officers and also means, with respect to a particular corporate trust matter, any other officer to whom such matter is referred because of such officer’s knowledge of and familiarity with the particular subject.
 
“Securities” means the debt Securities authenticated and delivered under this Indenture.
 
“Security Register” has the meaning specified in Section 2.05.
 
“Security Registrar” has the meaning specified in Section 2.05.
 
“Securityholder,” “holder of Securities,” “registered holder,” or other similar term, means the Person or Persons in whose name or names a particular Security shall be registered in the Security Register.
 
“Subsidiary” means, with respect to any Person, (i) any corporation at least a majority of whose outstanding Voting Stock shall at the time be owned, directly or indirectly, by such Person or by one or more of its Subsidiaries or by such Person and one or more of its Subsidiaries, (ii) any general partnership, joint venture or similar entity, at least a majority of whose outstanding partnership or similar interests shall at the time be owned by such Person, or by one or more of its Subsidiaries, or by such Person and one or more of its Subsidiaries and (iii) any limited partnership of which such Person or any of its Subsidiaries is a general partner.
 
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“Trustee” means the Person named as the “Trustee” in the first paragraph of this instrument until a successor Trustee shall have become such pursuant to the applicable provisions of this Indenture, and thereafter 
“Trustee” shall mean such successor Trustee. The term “Trustee” as used with respect to a particular series of the Securities shall mean the trustee with respect to that series.
 
“Trust Indenture Act” means the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, subject to the provisions of Sections 9.01, 9.02, and 10.01, as in effect at the date of execution of this instrument; provided, however, that in the event the Trust Indenture Act is amended after such date, Trust Indenture Act means, to the extent required by such amendment, the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as so amended, or any successor statute.
 
“Voting Stock,” as applied to any Person, means shares, interests, participations or other equivalents in the equity interest (however designated) in such Person having ordinary voting power for the election of a majority of the directors (or the equivalent) of such Person, other than shares, interests, participations or other equivalents having such power only by reason of the occurrence of a contingency.

ARTICLE II
 
ISSUE, DESCRIPTION, TERMS, EXECUTION,
REGISTRATION AND EXCHANGE OF SECURITIES
 
SECTION 2.01Designation and Terms of Securities.
 
(a) The aggregate principal amount of Securities that may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture is unlimited. The Securities may be issued in one or more series up to the aggregate principal amount of Securities of that series from time to time authorized by or pursuant to a Board Resolution of the Company or pursuant to one or more indentures supplemental hereto. Prior to the initial issuance of Securities of a given series, there shall be established in or pursuant to a Board Resolution of the Company, and set forth in an Officers’ Certificate of the Company, or established in one or more indentures supplemental hereto:
 
(1) the title of the Security of the series (which shall distinguish the Securities of the series from all other Securities);
 
(2) the aggregate principal amount of the Securities of such series initially to be issued and any limit upon the aggregate principal amount of the Securities of that series that may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture (except for Securities authenticated and delivered upon registration of transfer of, or in exchange for, or in lieu of, other Securities of that series);
 
(3) the currency or units based on or relating to currencies in which debt securities of such series are denominated and the currency or units in which principal or interest or both will or may be payable;
 
(4) the date or dates on which the principal of the Securities of the series is payable and the place(s) of payment;
 
(5) the rate or rates at which the Securities of the series shall bear interest or the manner of calculation of such rate or rates, if any;
 
(6) the date or dates from which such interest shall accrue, the Interest Payment Dates on which such interest will be payable or the manner of determination of such Interest Payment Dates, the place(s) of payment, and the record date for the determination of holders to whom interest is payable on any such Interest Payment Dates or the method for determining such dates;
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(7) the right, if any, to extend the interest payment periods or to defer the payment of interest and the duration of such extension;
  
(8) the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and the terms and conditions upon which, Securities of the series may be redeemed, in whole or in part, at the option of the Company;
 
(9) the obligation, if any, of the Company to redeem or purchase Securities of the series pursuant to any sinking fund or analogous provisions (including payments made in cash in satisfaction of future sinking fund obligations) or at the option of a holder thereof and the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which, and the terms and conditions upon which, Securities of the series shall be redeemed or purchased, in whole or in part, pursuant to such obligation;
 
(10) whether or not the debt securities will be secured or unsecured, and the terms of any secured debt;
 
(11) the form of the Securities of the series including the form of the Certificate of Authentication for such series;
 
(12) if other than denominations of one thousand U.S. dollars ($1,000) or any integral multiple thereof, the denominations in which the Securities of the series shall be issuable;
 
(13) any and all other terms with respect to such series (which terms shall not be inconsistent with the terms of this Indenture, as amended by any supplemental indenture) including any terms which may be required by or advisable under United States laws or regulations or advisable in connection with the marketing of Securities of that series;
 
(14) whether the Securities are issuable as a Global Security and, in such case, the identity of the Depositary for such series;
 
(15) whether the Securities will be convertible into shares of common stock or other securities of the Company and, if so, the terms and conditions upon which such Securities will be so convertible, including the conversion price and the conversion period;
 
(16) if other than the principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount of Securities of the series which shall be payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof pursuant to Section 6.01;
 
(17) any additional or different Events of Default or restrictive covenants provided for with respect to the Securities of the series; and
 
(18) the subordination terms of the Securities of the series.
 
All Securities of any one series shall be substantially identical except as to denomination and except as may otherwise be provided in or pursuant to any such Board Resolution or in any indentures supplemental hereto.
 
If any of the terms of the series are established by action taken pursuant to a Board Resolution of the Company, a copy of an appropriate record of such action shall be certified by the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary of the Company and delivered to the Trustee at or prior to the delivery of the Officers’ Certificate of the Company setting forth the terms of the series.
 
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Securities of any particular series may be issued at various times, with different dates on which the principal or any installment of principal is payable, with different rates of interest, if any, or different methods by which rates of interest may be determined, with different dates on which such interest may be payable and with different redemption dates.
  
SECTION 2.02Form of Securities and Trustee’s Certificate.
 
The Securities of any series and the Trustee’s certificate of authentication to be borne by such Securities shall be substantially of the tenor and purport as set forth in one or more indentures supplemental hereto or as provided in a Board Resolution of the Company and as set forth in an Officers’ Certificate of the Company and may have such letters, numbers or other marks of identification or designation and such legends or endorsements printed, lithographed or engraved thereon as the Company may deem appropriate and as are not inconsistent with the provisions of this Indenture, or as may be required to comply with any law or with any rule or regulation made pursuant thereto or with any rule or regulation of any stock exchange on which Securities of that series may be listed, or to conform to usage.
 
SECTION 2.03Denominations: Provisions for Payment.
 
The Securities shall be issuable as registered Securities and in the denominations of one thousand U.S. dollars ($1,000) or any integral multiple thereof, subject to Section 2.01(a)(12). The Securities of a particular series shall bear interest payable on the dates and at the rate specified with respect to that series.  The principal of and the interest on the Securities of any series, as well as any premium thereon in case of redemption thereof prior to maturity, shall be payable in the coin or currency of the United States of America that at the time is legal tender for public and private debt, at the office or agency of the Company maintained for that purpose in the Borough of Manhattan, the City and State of New York. Each Security shall be dated the date of its authentication.  Interest on the Securities shall be computed on the basis of a 360-day year composed of twelve 30-day months.
 
The interest installment on any Security that is payable, and is punctually paid or duly provided for, on any Interest Payment Date for Securities of that series shall be paid to the Person in whose name said Security (or one or more Predecessor Securities) is registered at the close of business on the regular record date for such interest installment.  In the event that any Security of a particular series or portion thereof is called for redemption and the redemption date is subsequent to a regular record date with respect to any Interest Payment Date and prior to such Interest Payment Date, interest on such Security will be paid upon presentation and surrender of such Security as provided in Section 3.03.
 
Any interest on any Security that is payable, but is not punctually paid or duly provided for, on any Interest Payment Date for Securities of the same series (herein called “Defaulted Interest”) shall forthwith cease to be payable to the registered holder on the relevant regular record date by virtue of having been such holder; and such Defaulted Interest shall be paid by the Company, at its election, as provided in clause (1) or clause (2) below:
 
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(1) The Company may make payment of any Defaulted Interest on Securities to the Persons in whose names such Securities (or their respective Predecessor Securities) are registered at the close of business on a special record date for the payment of such Defaulted Interest, which shall be fixed in the following manner: the Company shall notify the Trustee in writing of the amount of Defaulted Interest proposed to be paid on each such Security and the date of the proposed payment, and at the same time the Company shall deposit with the Trustee an amount of money equal to the aggregate amount proposed to be paid in respect of such Defaulted Interest or shall make arrangements satisfactory to the Trustee for such deposit prior to the date of the proposed payment, such money when deposited to be held in trust for the benefit of the Persons entitled to such Defaulted Interest as in this clause provided. Thereupon the Trustee shall fix a special record date for the payment of such Defaulted Interest which shall not be more than 15 nor less than 10 days prior to the date of the proposed payment and not less than 10 days after the receipt by the Trustee of the notice of the proposed payment. The Trustee shall promptly notify the Company of such special record date and, in the name and at the expense of the Company, shall cause notice of the proposed payment of such Defaulted Interest and the special record date therefor to be mailed, first class postage prepaid, to each Securityholder at his or her address as it appears in the Security Register, not less than 10 days prior to such special record date. Notice of the proposed payment of such Defaulted Interest and the special record date therefor having been mailed as aforesaid, such 
Defaulted Interest shall be paid to the Persons in whose names such Securities (or their respective Predecessor Securities) are registered on such special record date.
 
(2) The Company may make payment of any Defaulted Interest on any Securities in any other lawful manner not inconsistent with the requirements of any securities exchange on which such Securities may be listed, and upon such notice as may be required by such exchange, if, after notice given by the Company to the Trustee of the proposed payment pursuant to this clause, such manner of payment shall be deemed practicable by the Trustee.
 
Unless otherwise set forth in a Board Resolution of the Company or one or more indentures supplemental hereto establishing the terms of any series of Securities pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof, the term “regular record date” as used in this Section with respect to a series of Securities with respect to any Interest Payment Date for such series shall mean either the fifteenth day of the month immediately preceding the month in which an Interest Payment Date established for such series pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof shall occur, if such Interest Payment Date is the first day of a month, or the last day of the month immediately preceding the month in which an Interest Payment Date established for such series pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof shall occur, if such Interest Payment Date is the fifteenth day of a month, whether or not such date is a Business Day.
 
Subject to the foregoing provisions of this Section, each Security of a series delivered under this Indenture upon transfer of or in exchange for or in lieu of any other Security of such series shall carry the rights to interest accrued and unpaid, and to accrue, that were carried by such other Security.
 
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SECTION 2.04 Execution and Authentications.
 
The Securities shall be signed on behalf of the Company by its President, or one of its Vice Presidents, or its Treasurer, or one of its Assistant Treasurers, or its Secretary, or one of its Assistant Secretaries, under its corporate seal attested by its Secretary or one of its Assistant Secretaries. Signatures may be in the form of a manual or facsimile signature. The Company may use the facsimile signature of any Person who shall have been a President or Vice President thereof, or of any Person who shall have been a Treasurer or Assistant Treasurer thereof, or of any Person who shall have been a Secretary or Assistant Secretary thereof, notwithstanding the fact that at the time the Securities shall be authenticated and delivered or disposed of such Person shall have ceased to be the President or a Vice President, the Treasurer or an Assistant Treasurer or the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary, of the Company. The seal of the Company may be in the form of a facsimile of such seal and may be impressed, affixed, imprinted or otherwise reproduced on the Securities. The Securities may contain such notations, legends or endorsements required by law, stock exchange rule or usage. Each Security shall be dated the date of its authentication.
 
A Security shall not be valid or obligatory for any purpose and shall not be entitled to any benefit under this Indenture, in each case, until authenticated with a certificate of authentication manually signed by an authorized signatory of the Trustee, or by an Authenticating Agent. Such certificate shall be conclusive evidence, and the only evidence, that the Security so authenticated has been duly authenticated and delivered hereunder and that the Security is entitled to the benefits of this Indenture. At any time and from time to time after the execution and delivery of this Indenture, the Company may deliver Securities of any series executed by the Company to the Trustee for authentication, together with a written order of the Company for the authentication and delivery of such Securities, signed by its President or any Vice President and its Secretary or any Assistant Secretary, and the Trustee in accordance with such written order shall authenticate and deliver such Securities.
 
In authenticating such Securities and accepting the additional responsibilities under this Indenture in relation to such Securities, the Trustee shall be entitled to receive, and (subject to Section 7.01) shall be fully protected in relying upon, an Opinion of Counsel stating that the form and terms thereof have been established in conformity with the provisions of this Indenture.
  
The Trustee shall not be required to authenticate such Securities if the issue of such Securities pursuant to this Indenture will affect the Trustee’s own rights, duties or immunities under the Securities and this Indenture or otherwise in a manner that is not reasonably acceptable to the Trustee.
 
SECTION 2.05Registration of Transfer and Exchange.
 
(a) Securities of any series may be exchanged upon presentation thereof at the office or agency of the Company designated for such purpose in the Borough of Manhattan, the City and State of New York, for other Securities of such series of authorized denominations, and for a like aggregate principal amount, upon payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge in relation thereto, all as provided in this Section. In respect of any Securities so surrendered for exchange, the Company shall execute, the Trustee shall authenticate and such office or agency shall deliver in exchange therefor the Security or Securities of the same series that the Securityholder making the exchange shall be entitled to receive, bearing numbers not contemporaneously outstanding.
 
(b) The Company shall keep, or cause to be kept, at its office or agency designated for such purpose in the Borough of Manhattan, the City and State of New York, or such other location designated by the Company a register or registers (herein referred to as the “Security Register”) in which, subject to such reasonable regulations as it may prescribe, the Company shall register the Securities and the transfers of Securities as in this Article provided and which at all reasonable times shall be open for inspection by the Trustee. The registrar for the purpose of registering Securities and transfer of Securities as herein provided shall be appointed as authorized by Board Resolution (the “Security Registrar”).
 
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Upon surrender for transfer of any Security at the office or agency of the Company designated for such purpose, the Company shall execute, the Trustee shall authenticate and such office or agency shall deliver in the name of the transferee or transferees a new Security or Securities of the same series as the Security presented for a like aggregate principal amount.
 
All Securities presented or surrendered for exchange or registration of transfer, as provided in this Section, shall be accompanied (if so required by the Company or the Security Registrar) by a written instrument or instruments of transfer, in form satisfactory to the Company or the Security Registrar, duly executed by the registered holder or by such holder’s duly authorized attorney in writing.
 
(c) No service charge shall be made for any exchange or registration of transfer of Securities, or issue of new Securities in case of partial redemption of any series, but the Company may require payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge in relation thereto, other than exchanges pursuant to Section 2.06, Section 3.03(b) and Section 9.04 not involving any transfer.
 
(d) The Company shall not be required (i) to issue, exchange or register the transfer of any Securities during a period beginning at the opening of business 15 days before the day of the mailing of a notice of redemption of less than all the Outstanding Securities of the same series and ending at the close of business on the day of such mailing, nor (ii) to register the transfer of or exchange any Securities of any series or portions thereof called for redemption. The provisions of this Section 2.05 are, with respect to any Global Security, subject to Section 2.11 hereof.
 
SECTION 2.06Temporary Securities.
 
Pending the preparation of definitive Securities of any series, the Company may execute, and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver, temporary Securities (printed, lithographed or typewritten) of any authorized denomination. Such temporary Securities shall be substantially in the form of the definitive Securities in lieu of which they are issued, but with such omissions, insertions and variations as may be appropriate for temporary Securities, all as may be determined by the Company. Every temporary Security of any series shall be executed by the Company and be authenticated by the Trustee upon the same conditions and in substantially the same manner, and with like effect, as the definitive Securities of such series. Without unnecessary delay the Company will execute and will furnish definitive Securities of such series and thereupon any or all temporary Securities of such series may be surrendered in exchange therefor (without charge to the holders), at the office or agency of the Company designated for the purpose in the Borough of Manhattan, the City and State of New York, and the Trustee shall authenticate and such office or agency shall deliver in exchange for such temporary Securities an equal aggregate principal amount of definitive Securities of such series, unless the Company advises the Trustee to the effect that definitive Securities need not be executed and furnished until further notice from the Company. Until so exchanged, the temporary Securities of such series shall be entitled to the same benefits under this Indenture as definitive Securities of such series authenticated and delivered hereunder.
 
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SECTION 2.07Mutilated, Destroyed, Lost or Stolen Securities.
 
In case any temporary or definitive Security shall become mutilated or be destroyed, lost or stolen, the Company (subject to the next succeeding sentence) shall execute, and upon the Company’s request the Trustee (subject as aforesaid) shall authenticate and deliver, a new Security of the same series, bearing a number not contemporaneously outstanding, in exchange and substitution for the mutilated Security, or in lieu of and in substitution for the Security so destroyed, lost or stolen. In every case the applicant for a substituted Security shall furnish to the Company and the Trustee such security or indemnity as may be required by them to save each of them harmless, and, in every case of destruction, loss or theft, the applicant shall also furnish to the Company and the Trustee evidence to their satisfaction of the destruction, loss or theft of the applicant’s Security and of the ownership thereof. The Trustee may authenticate any such substituted Security and deliver the same upon the written request or authorization of any officer of the Company. Upon the issuance of any substituted Security, the Company may require the payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge that may be imposed in relation thereto and any other expenses (including the fees and expenses of the Trustee) connected therewith. In case any Security that has matured or is about to mature shall become mutilated or be destroyed, lost or stolen, the Company may, instead of issuing a substitute Security, pay or authorize the payment of the same (without surrender thereof except in the case of a mutilated Security) if the applicant for such payment shall furnish to the Company and the Trustee such security or indemnity as they may require to save them harmless, and, in case of destruction, loss or theft, evidence to the satisfaction of the Company and the Trustee of the destruction, loss or theft of such Security and of the ownership thereof.
 
Every replacement Security issued pursuant to the provisions of this Section shall constitute an additional contractual obligation of the Company whether or not the mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Security shall be found at any time, or be enforceable by anyone, and shall be entitled to all the benefits of this Indenture equally and proportionately with any and all other Securities of the same series duly issued hereunder. All Securities shall be held and owned upon the express condition that the foregoing provisions are exclusive with respect to the replacement or payment of mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Securities, and shall preclude (to the extent lawful) any and all other rights or remedies, notwithstanding any law or statute existing or hereafter enacted to the contrary with respect to the replacement or payment of negotiable instruments or other securities without their surrender.
 
SECTION 2.08Cancellation.
 
All Securities surrendered for the purpose of payment, redemption, exchange or registration of transfer shall, if surrendered to the Company or any paying agent, be delivered to the Trustee for cancellation, or, if surrendered to the Trustee, shall be cancelled by it, and no Securities shall be issued in lieu thereof except as expressly required or permitted by any of the provisions of this Indenture. On request of the Company at the time of such surrender, the Trustee shall deliver to the Company canceled Securities held by the Trustee. In the absence of such request the Trustee may dispose of canceled Securities in accordance with its standard procedures and deliver a certificate of disposition to the Company. If the Company shall otherwise acquire any of the Securities, however, such acquisition shall not operate as a redemption or satisfaction of the indebtedness represented by such Securities unless and until the same are delivered to the Trustee for cancellation.
  
SECTION 2.09Benefits of Indenture.
 
Nothing in this Indenture or in the Securities, express or implied, shall give or be construed to give to any Person, other than the parties hereto and the holders of the Securities (and, with respect to the provisions of Article XIV, the holders of Senior Indebtedness, as defined in any supplement to this Indenture pursuant to Article XIV) any legal or equitable right, remedy or claim under or in respect of this Indenture, or under any covenant, condition or provision herein contained; all such covenants, conditions and provisions being for the sole benefit of the parties hereto and of the holders of the Securities (and, with respect to the provisions of Article XIV, the holders of Senior Indebtedness).
 

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SECTION 2.10Authenticating Agent.
 
So long as any of the Securities of any series remain Outstanding there may be an Authenticating Agent for any or all such series of Securities which the Trustee shall have the right to appoint. Said Authenticating Agent shall be authorized to act on behalf of the Trustee to authenticate Securities of such series issued upon exchange, transfer or partial redemption thereof, and Securities so authenticated shall be entitled to the benefits of this Indenture and shall be valid and obligatory for all purposes as if authenticated by the Trustee hereunder. All references in this Indenture to the authentication of Securities by the Trustee shall be deemed to include authentication by an Authenticating Agent for such series. Each Authenticating Agent shall be acceptable to the Company and shall be a corporation that has a combined capital and surplus, as most recently reported or determined by it, sufficient under the laws of any jurisdiction under which it is organized or in which it is doing business to conduct a trust business, and that is otherwise authorized under such laws to conduct such business and is subject to supervision or examination by Federal or State authorities. If at any time any Authenticating Agent shall cease to be eligible in accordance with these provisions, it shall resign immediately.
 
Any Authenticating Agent may at any time resign by giving written notice of resignation to the Trustee and to the Company. The Trustee may at any time (and upon request by the Company shall) terminate the agency of any Authenticating Agent by giving written notice of termination to such Authenticating Agent and to the Company. Upon resignation, termination or cessation of eligibility of any Authenticating Agent, the Trustee may appoint an eligible successor Authenticating Agent acceptable to the Company. Any successor Authenticating Agent, upon acceptance of its appointment hereunder, shall become vested with all the rights, powers and duties of its predecessor hereunder as if originally named as an Authenticating Agent pursuant hereto.
 
SECTION 2.11Global Securities
 
(a) If the Company shall establish pursuant to Section 2.01 that some or all of the Securities of a particular series are to be issued as a Global Security, then the Company shall execute and the Trustee shall, in accordance with Section 2.04, authenticate and deliver, a Global Security that (i) shall represent, and shall be denominated in an amount equal to the aggregate principal amount of, the Outstanding Securities of such series which are to be issued as a Global Security, (ii) shall be registered in the name of the Depositary or its nominee, (iii) shall be delivered by the Trustee to the Depositary or pursuant to the Depositary’s instruction and (iv) shall bear a legend substantially to the following effect: “Except as otherwise provided in Section 2.11 of the Indenture, this Security may be transferred, in whole but not in part, only to another nominee of the Depositary or to a successor Depositary or to a nominee of such successor Depositary.”
 
(b) Notwithstanding the provisions of Section 2.05, the Global Security of a series may be transferred, in whole but not in part and in the manner provided in Section 2.05, only to another nominee of the Depositary for such series, or to a successor Depositary for such series selected or approved by the Company or to a nominee of such successor Depositary.
 
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(c) If at any time the Depositary for a series of the Securities notifies the Company that it is unwilling or unable to continue as Depositary for such series or if at any time the Depositary for such series shall no longer be registered or in good standing under the Exchange Act, or other applicable statute or regulation, and a successor Depositary for such series is not appointed by the Company within 90 days after the Company receives such notice or becomes aware of such condition, as the case may be, this Section 2.11 shall no longer be applicable to the Securities of such series and the Company will execute, and subject to Section 2.05, the Trustee will authenticate and deliver the Securities of such series in definitive registered form without coupons, in authorized denominations, and in an aggregate principal amount equal to the principal amount of the Global Security of such series in exchange for such Global Security. In addition, the Company may at any time determine that the Securities of any series shall no longer be represented by a Global Security and that the provisions of this Section 2.11 shall no longer apply to the Securities of such series. In such event the Company will execute and subject to Section 2.05, the Trustee, upon receipt of an Officers’ Certificate evidencing such determination by the Company, will authenticate and deliver the Securities of such series in definitive registered form without coupons, in authorized denominations, and in an aggregate principal amount equal to the principal amount of the Global Security of such series in exchange for such Global Security. Upon the exchange of the Global Security for such Securities in definitive registered form without coupons, in authorized denominations, the Global Security shall be canceled by the Trustee. Such Securities in definitive registered form issued in exchange for the Global Security pursuant to this Section 2.11(c) shall be registered in such names and in such authorized denominations as the Depositary, pursuant to instructions from its direct or indirect participants or otherwise, shall instruct the Trustee. The Trustee shall deliver such Securities to the Depositary for delivery to the Persons in whose names such Securities are so registered.
 

ARTICLE III
 
REDEMPTION OF SECURITIES AND
SINKING FUND PROVISIONS
 
SECTION 3.01Redemption.
 
The Company may redeem the Securities of any series issued hereunder on and after the dates and in accordance with the terms established for such series pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof.
 
SECTION 3.02Notice of Redemption.
 
(a) In case the Company shall desire to exercise such right to redeem all or, as the case may be, a portion of the Securities of any series in accordance with the right reserved so to do, the Company shall, or shall cause the Trustee to, give notice of such redemption to holders of the Securities of such series to be redeemed by mailing, first class postage prepaid, a notice of such redemption not less than 30 days and not more than 90 days before the date fixed for redemption of that series to such holders at their last addresses as they shall appear upon the Security Register unless a shorter period is specified in the Securities to be redeemed. Any notice that is mailed in the manner herein provided shall be conclusively presumed to have been duly given, whether or not the registered holder receives the notice. In any case, failure duly to give such notice to the holder of any Security of any series designated for redemption in whole or in part, or any defect in the notice, shall not affect the validity of the proceedings for the redemption of any other Securities of such series or any other series. In the case of any redemption of Securities prior to the expiration of any restriction on such redemption provided in the terms of such Securities or elsewhere in this Indenture, the Company shall furnish the Trustee with an Officers’ Certificate evidencing compliance with any such restriction.
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Each such notice of redemption shall specify the date fixed for redemption and the redemption price at which Securities of that series are to be redeemed, and shall state that payment of the redemption price of such Securities to be redeemed will be made at the office or agency of the Company in the Borough of Manhattan, the City and State of New York, upon presentation and surrender of such Securities, that interest accrued to the date fixed for redemption will be paid as specified in said notice, that from and after said date interest will cease to accrue and that the redemption is for a sinking fund, if such is the case. If less than all the Securities of a series are to be redeemed, the notice to the holders of Securities of that series to be redeemed in whole or in part shall specify the particular Securities to be so redeemed. In case any Security is to be redeemed in part only, the notice that relates to 
such Security shall state the portion of the principal amount thereof to be redeemed, and shall state that on and after the redemption date, upon surrender of such Security, a new Security or Securities of such series in principal amount equal to the unredeemed portion thereof will be issued.
 
(b) If less than all the Securities of a series are to be redeemed, the Company shall give the Trustee at least 30 days’ notice in advance of the date fixed for redemption as to the aggregate principal amount of Securities of the series to be redeemed, and thereupon the Trustee shall select, by lot or in such other manner as it shall deem appropriate and fair in its discretion and that may provide for the selection of a portion or portions (equal to one thousand U.S. dollars ($1,000) or any integral multiple thereof) of the principal amount of such Securities of a denomination larger than $1,000, the Securities to be redeemed and shall thereafter promptly notify the Company in writing of the numbers of the Securities to be redeemed, in whole or in part. The Company may, if and whenever it shall so elect, by delivery of instructions signed on its behalf by its President or any Vice President, instruct the Trustee or any paying agent to call all or any part of the Securities of a particular series for redemption and to give notice of redemption in the manner set forth in this Section, such notice to be in the name of the Company or its own name as the Trustee or such paying agent may deem advisable. In any case in which notice of redemption is to be given by the Trustee or any such paying agent, the Company shall deliver or cause to be delivered to, or permit to remain with, the Trustee or such paying agent, as the case may be, such Security Register, transfer books or other records, or suitable copies or extracts therefrom, sufficient to enable the Trustee or such paying agent to give any notice by mail that may be required under the provisions of this Section.
 
SECTION 3.03Payment Upon Redemption.
 
(a) If the giving of notice of redemption shall have been completed as above provided, the Securities or portions of Securities of the series to be redeemed specified in such notice shall become due and payable on the date and at the place stated in such notice at the applicable redemption price, together with interest accrued to the date fixed for redemption and interest on such Securities or portions of Securities shall cease to accrue on and after the date fixed for redemption, unless the Company shall default in the payment of such redemption price and accrued interest with respect to any such Security or portion thereof. On presentation and surrender of such Securities on or after the date fixed for redemption at the place of payment specified in the notice, said Securities shall be paid and redeemed at the applicable redemption price for such series, together with interest accrued thereon to the date fixed for redemption (but if the date fixed for redemption is an interest payment date, the interest installment payable on such date shall be payable to the registered holder at the close of business on the applicable record date pursuant to Section 2.03).
 
(b) Upon presentation of any Security of such series that is to be redeemed in part only, the Company shall execute and the Trustee shall authenticate and the office or agency where the Security is presented shall deliver to the holder thereof, at the expense of the Company, a new Security of the same series of authorized denominations in principal amount equal to the unredeemed portion of the Security so presented.
 
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SECTION 3.04Sinking Fund.
 
The provisions of Sections 3.04, 3.05 and 3.06 shall be applicable to any sinking fund for the retirement of Securities of a series, except as otherwise specified as contemplated by Section 2.01 for Securities of such series.
 
The minimum amount of any sinking fund payment provided for by the terms of Securities of any series is herein referred to as a “mandatory sinking fund payment,” and any payment in excess of such minimum amount provided for by the terms of Securities of any series is herein referred to as an “optional sinking fund payment.” If provided for by the terms of Securities of any series, the cash amount of any sinking fund payment may be subject to reduction as provided in Section 3.05. Each sinking fund payment shall be applied to the redemption of Securities of any series as provided for by the terms of Securities of such series.
  
SECTION 3.05Satisfaction of Sinking Fund Payments with Securities.
 
The Company (i) may deliver Outstanding Securities of a series (other than any Securities previously called for redemption) and (ii) may apply as a credit Securities of a series that have been redeemed either at the election of the Company pursuant to the terms of such Securities or through the application of permitted optional sinking fund payments pursuant to the terms of such Securities, in each case in satisfaction of all or any part of any sinking fund payment with respect to the Securities of such series required to be made pursuant to the terms of such Securities as provided for by the terms of such series, provided that such Securities have not been previously so credited. Such Securities shall be received and credited for such purpose by the Trustee at the redemption price specified in such Securities for redemption through operation of the sinking fund and the amount of such sinking fund payment shall be reduced accordingly.
 
SECTION 3.06Redemption of Securities for Sinking Fund.
 
Not less than 45 days prior to each sinking fund payment date for any series of Securities, the Company will deliver to the Trustee an Officers’ Certificate specifying the amount of the next ensuing sinking fund payment for that series pursuant to the terms of the series, the portion thereof, if any, that is to be satisfied by delivering and crediting Securities of that series pursuant to Section 3.05 and the basis for such credit and will, together with such Officers’ Certificate, deliver to the Trustee any Securities to be so delivered. Not less than 30 days before each such sinking fund payment date the Trustee shall select the Securities to be redeemed upon such sinking fund payment date in the manner specified in Section 3.02 and cause notice of the redemption thereof to be given in the name of and at the expense of the Company in the manner provided in Section 3.02. Such notice having been duly given, the redemption of such Securities shall be made upon the terms and in the manner stated in Section 3.03.

ARTICLE IV
 
COVENANTS
 
SECTION 4.01Payment of Principal, Premium and Interest.
 
The Company will duly and punctually pay or cause to be paid the principal of (and premium, if any) and interest on the Securities of that series at the time and place and in the manner provided herein and established with respect to such Securities.
 
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SECTION 4.02Maintenance of Office or Agency.
 
So long as any series of the Securities remain Outstanding, the Company agrees to maintain an office or agency in the Borough of Manhattan, the City and State of New York, with respect to each such series and at such other location or locations as may be designated as provided in this Section 4.02, where (i) Securities of that series may be presented or surrendered for payment, (ii) Securities of that series may be presented as herein above authorized for registration of transfer and exchange, and (iii) notices and demands to or upon the Company in respect of the Securities of that series and this Indenture may be given or served, such designation to continue with respect to such office or agency until the Company shall, by written notice signed by its President or a Vice President and delivered to the trustee, designate some other office or agency for such purposes or any of them. If at any time the Company shall fail to maintain any such required office or agency or shall fail to furnish the Trustee with the address thereof, such presentations, notices and demands may be made or served at the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee, and the Company hereby appoints the Trustee as its agent to receive all such presentations, notices and demands.
 
SECTION 4.03Paying Agents.
 
(a) If the Company shall appoint one or more paying agents for all or any series of the Securities, other than the Trustee, the Company will cause each such paying agent to execute and deliver to the Trustee an instrument in which such agent shall agree with the Trustee, subject to the provisions of this Section:
  
(1) that it will hold all sums held by it as such agent for the payment of the principal of (and premium, if any) or interest on the Securities of that series (whether such sums have been paid to it by the Company or by any other obligor of such Securities) in trust for the benefit of the Persons entitled thereto;
 
(2) that it will give the Trustee notice of any failure by the Company (or by any other obligor of such Securities) to make any payment of the principal of (and premium, if any) or interest on the Securities of that series when the same shall be due and payable;
 
(3) that it will, at any time during the continuance of any failure referred to in the preceding paragraph (a)(2) above, upon the written request of the Trustee, forthwith pay to the Trustee all sums so held in trust by such paying agent; and
 
(4) that it will perform all other duties of paying agent as set forth in this Indenture.
 
(b) If the Company shall act as its own paying agent with respect to any series of the Securities, it will on or before each due date of the principal of (and premium, if any) or interest on Securities of that series, set aside, segregate and hold in trust for the benefit of the Persons entitled thereto a sum sufficient with monies held by all other paying agents to pay such principal (and premium, if any) or interest so becoming due on Securities of that series until such sums shall be paid to such Persons or otherwise disposed of as herein provided and will promptly notify the Trustee of such action, or any failure (by it or any other obligor on such Securities) to take such action. Whenever the Company shall have one or more paying agents for any series of Securities, it will, prior to each due date of the principal of (and premium, if any) or interest on any Securities of that series, deposit with the paying agent a sum sufficient to pay the principal (an premium, if any) or interest so becoming due, such sum to be held in trust for the benefit of the Persons entitled to such principal, premium or interest, and (unless such paying agent is the Trustee) the Company will promptly notify the Trustee of this action or failure so to act.
 
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(c) Notwithstanding anything in this Section to the contrary, (i) the agreement to hold sums in trust as provided in this Section is subject to the provisions of Section 11.05, and (ii) the Company may at any time, for the purpose of obtaining the satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture or for any other purpose, pay, or direct any paying agent to pay, to the Trustee all sums held in trust by the Company or such paying agent, such sums to be held by the Trustee upon the same terms and conditions as those upon which such sums were held by the Company or such paying agent; and, upon such payment by any paying agent to the Trustee, such paying agent shall be released from all further liability with respect to such money.
 
SECTION 4.04Appointment to Fill Vacancy in Office of Trustee.
 
The Company, whenever necessary to avoid or fill a vacancy in the office of Trustee, will appoint, in the manner provided in Section 7.10, a Trustee, so that there shall at all times be a Trustee hereunder.
 
SECTION 4.05Compliance with Consolidation Provisions.
 
The Company will not, while any of the Securities remain Outstanding, consolidate with or merge into any other Person, in either case where the Company is not the survivor of such transaction, or sell or convey all or substantially all of its property to any other company unless the provisions of Article X hereof are complied with.

ARTICLE V
 
SECURITYHOLDERS’ LISTS AND REPORTS BY THE COMPANY AND THE TRUSTEE
 
SECTION 5.01Company to Furnish Trustee Names and Addresses of Securityholders.
 
If the Company is not the Security Register, the Company will furnish or use reasonable efforts to cause to be furnished to the Trustee (a) on each regular record date (as defined in Section 2.03) a list, in such form as the Trustee may reasonably require, of the names and addresses of the holders of each series of Securities as of such regular record date, provided that the Company shall not be obligated to furnish or cause to furnish such list at any time that the list shall not differ in any respect from the most recent list furnished to the Trustee by the Company and (b) at such other times as the Trustee may request in writing within 30 days after the receipt by the Company of any such request, a list of similar form and content as of a date not more than 15 days prior to the time such list is furnished; provided, however, that, in either case, no such list need be furnished for any series for which the Trustee shall be the Security Registrar.
 
SECTION 5.02Preservation of Information; Communications with Securityholders.
 
(a) The Trustee shall preserve, in as current a form as is reasonably practicable, all information as to the names and addresses of the holders of Securities contained in the most recent list furnished to it as provided in Section 5.01 and as to the names and addresses of holders of Securities received by the Trustee in its capacity as Security Registrar (if acting in such capacity) and shall otherwise comply with Section 312(a) of the Trust Indenture Act.
 
(b) The Trustee may destroy any list furnished to it as provided in Section 5.01 upon receipt of a new list so furnished.
 
(c) Securityholders may communicate as provided in Section 312(b) of the Trust Indenture Act with other Securityholders with respect to their rights under this Indenture or under the Securities.
 
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SECTION 5.03Reports by the Company.
 
(a) The Company covenants and agrees to file with the Trustee, within 15 days after the Company is required to file the same with the Commission, copies of the annual reports and of the information, documents and other reports (or copies of such portions of any of the foregoing as the Commission may from time to time by rules and regulations prescribe) that the Company may be required to file with the Commission pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act; or, if the Company is not required to file information, documents or reports pursuant to either of such sections, then to file with the Trustee and the Commission, in accordance with the rules and regulations prescribed from time to time by the Commission, such of the supplementary and periodic information, documents and reports that may be required pursuant to Section 13 of the Exchange Act, in respect of a security listed and registered on a national securities exchange as may be prescribed from time to time in such rules and regulations; provided, however, the Company shall not be required to deliver to the Trustee any materials for which the Company has sought and received confidential treatment by the Commission. The Company also shall comply with the other provisions of Section 314(a) of the Trust Indenture Act.
 
(b) The Company covenants and agrees to file with the Trustee and the Commission, in accordance with the rules and regulations prescribed from to time by the Commission, such additional information, documents and reports with respect to compliance by the Company with the conditions and covenants provided for in this Indenture as may be required from time to time by such rules and regulations.
 
(c) The Company covenants and agrees to transmit by mail, first class postage prepaid, or reputable over-night delivery service that provides for evidence of receipt, to the Securityholders, as their names and addresses appear upon the Security Register, within 30 days after the filing thereof with the Trustee, such summaries of any information, documents and reports required to be filed by the Company pursuant to subsections (a) and (b) of this Section as may be required by rules and regulations prescribed from time to time by the Commission.
 
SECTION 5.04Reports by the Trustee.
 
(a) The Trustee shall transmit to holders as provided in Section 313 of the Trust Indenture Act such reports concerning the Trustee and its actions under this Indenture as may be required by Section 313 of the Trust Indenture Act at the times and in the manner provided by the Trust Indenture Act.
 
(b) A copy of each such report shall, at the time of such transmission to Securityholders, be filed by the Trustee with the Company, with each stock exchange upon which any Securities are listed (if so listed) and, if required by Section 313 of the Trust Indenture Act, also with the Commission. The Company agrees to notify the Trustee when any Securities become listed on any stock exchange.

ARTICLE VI
 
REMEDIES OF THE TRUSTEE AND SECURITYHOLDERS ON EVENT OF DEFAULT
 
SECTION 6.01Events of Default.
 
(a) Whenever used herein with respect to Securities of a particular series, “Event of Default” means any one or more of the following events that has occurred and is continuing:
 
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(1) the Company defaults in the payment of any installment of interest upon any of the Securities of that series, as and when the same shall become due and payable, and continuance of such default for a period of 90 days; provided, however, that a valid extension of an interest payment period by the Company in accordance with the terms of any indenture supplemental hereto shall not constitute a default in the payment of interest for this purpose;
 
(2) the Company defaults in the payment of the principal of (or premium, if any, on) any of the Securities of that series as and when the same shall become due and payable whether at maturity, upon redemption, by declaration or otherwise, or in any payment required by any sinking or analogous fund established with respect to that series; provided, however, that a valid extension of the maturity of such Securities in accordance with the terms of any indenture supplemental hereto shall not constitute a default in the payment of principal or premium, if any;
 
(3) the Company fails to observe or perform any other of its covenants or agreements with respect to that series contained in this Indenture or otherwise established with respect to that series of Securities pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof (other than a covenant or agreement that has been expressly included in this Indenture solely for the benefit of one or more series of Securities other than such series) for a period of 90 days after the date on which written notice of such failure, requiring the same to be remedied and stating that such notice is a “Notice of Default” hereunder, shall have been given to the Company by the Trustee, by registered or certified mail, or to the Company and the Trustee by the holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of the Securities of that series at the time Outstanding;
 
(4) the Company pursuant to or within the meaning of any Bankruptcy Law (i) commences a voluntary case, (ii) consents to the entry of an order for relief against it in an involuntary 
case, (iii) consents to the appointment of a Custodian of it or for all or substantially all of its property or (iv) makes a general assignment for the benefit of its creditors; or
 
(5) a court of competent jurisdiction enters an order under any Bankruptcy Law that (i) is for relief against the Company in an involuntary case, (ii) appoints a Custodian of the Company for all or substantially all of its property, or (iii) orders the liquidation of the Company, and the order or decree remains unstayed and in effect for 90 consecutive days.
 
(b) In each and every such case, unless the principal of all the Securities of that series shall have already become due and payable, either the Trustee or the holders of not less than a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of that series then Outstanding hereunder, by notice in writing to the Company (and to the Trustee if given by such Securityholders), may declare the principal (or, if any Securities of that series are discount securities, that portion of the principal amount as may be specified in the terms of that series pursuant to Section 2.01(a)(16)) of (and premium, if any, on) and accrued and unpaid interest, if any, on all the Securities of that series to be due and payable immediately, and upon any such declaration the same shall become and shall be immediately due and payable. Notwithstanding the foregoing, the payment of such principal (or, if any Securities of that series are discount securities, that portion of the principal amount as may be specified in the terms of that series pursuant to Section 2.01(a)(16)) of (and premium, if any, on) and accrued and unpaid interest, if any, on the Securities of such series shall remain subordinated to the extent provided in Article XIV.
 
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(c) At any time after the principal of the Securities of that series shall have been so declared due and payable, and before a judgment or decree for the payment of the moneys due shall have been obtained or entered as hereinafter provided, the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of that series then Outstanding hereunder (or, by action at a meeting of holders of the Securities of such series in accordance with Section 8.09, the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of such series then Outstanding represented at such meeting), by written notice to the Company and the Trustee, may rescind and annul such declaration and its consequences if: (i) the Company has paid or deposited with the Trustee a sum sufficient to pay all matured installments of interest upon all the Securities of that series and the principal of (and premium, if any, on) any and all Securities of that series that shall have become due otherwise than by acceleration and (ii) any and all Events of Default under this Indenture with respect to such series, other than the nonpayment of principal of (and premium, if any, on) and accrued and unpaid interest, if any, on Securities of that series that shall have become due solely because of such acceleration, shall have been remedied, cured or waived as provided in Section 6.06.  No such rescission and annulment shall extend to or shall affect any subsequent default or impair any right consequent thereon.
 
(d) In case the Trustee shall have proceeded to enforce any right with respect to Securities of that series under this Indenture and such proceedings shall have been discontinued or abandoned because of such rescission or annulment or for any other reason or shall have been determined adversely to the Trustee, then and in every such case, subject to any determination in such proceedings, the Company, and the Trustee shall be restored respectively to their former positions and rights hereunder, and all rights, remedies and powers of the Company and the Trustee shall continue as though no such proceedings had been taken.
 
SECTION 6.02Collection of Indebtedness and Suits for Enforcement by Trustee.
 
(a) The Company covenants that (1) in case it shall default in the payment of any installment of interest on any of the Securities of a series, or any payment required by any sinking or analogous fund established with respect to that series as and when the same shall have become due and payable, and such default shall have continued for a period of 90 Business Days, or (2) in case it shall default in the payment of the principal of (or premium, if any, on) any of the Securities of a series when the same shall have become due and payable, whether upon maturity of the Securities 
of a series or upon redemption or upon declaration or otherwise, then, upon demand of the Trustee, the Company will pay to the Trustee, for the benefit of the holders of the Securities of that series, the whole amount that then shall have been become due and payable on all such Securities for principal (and premium, if any) or interest, or both, as the case may be, with interest upon the overdue principal (and premium, if any) and (to the extent that payment of such interest is enforceable under applicable law) upon overdue installments of interest at the rate per annum expressed in the Securities of that series; and, in addition thereto, such further amount as shall be sufficient to cover the costs and expenses of collection, and the amount payable to the Trustee under Section 7.06.
 
(b) If the Company shall fail to pay such amounts forthwith upon such demand, the Trustee, in its own name and as trustee of an express trust, shall be entitled and empowered to institute any action or proceedings at law or in equity for the collection of the sums so due and unpaid, and may prosecute any such action or proceeding to judgment or final decree, and may enforce any such judgment or final decree against the Company or other obligor upon the Securities of that series and collect the moneys adjudged or decreed to be payable in the manner provided by law out of the property of the Company or other obligor upon the Securities of that series, wherever situated.
 
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(c) In case of any receivership, insolvency, liquidation, bankruptcy, reorganization, readjustment, arrangement, composition or judicial proceedings affected the Company, or its creditors or property, the Trustee shall have power to intervene in such proceedings and take any action therein that may be permitted by the court and shall (except as may be otherwise provided by law) be entitled to file such proofs of claim and other papers and documents as may be necessary or advisable in order to have the claims of the Trustee and of the holders of Securities of such series allowed for the entire amount due and payable by the Company under this Indenture at the date of institution of such proceedings and for any additional amount that may become due and payable by the Company after such date, and to collect and receive any moneys or other property payable or deliverable on any such claim, and to distribute the same after the deduction of the amount payable to the Trustee under Section 7.06; and any receiver, assignee or trustee in bankruptcy or reorganization is hereby authorized by each of the holders of Securities of such series to make such payments to the Trustee, and, in the event that the Trustee shall consent to the making of such payments directly to such Securityholders, to pay to the Trustee any amount due it under Section 7.06.
 
(d) All rights of action and of asserting claims under this Indenture, or under any of the terms established with respect to Securities of that series, may be enforced by the Trustee without the possession of any of such Securities, or the production thereof at any trial or other proceeding relative thereto, and any such suit or proceeding instituted by the Trustee shall be brought in its own name as trustee of an express trust, and any recovery of judgment shall, after provision for payment to the Trustee of any amounts due under Section 7.06, be for the ratable benefit of the holders of the Securities of such series.
 
In case of an Event of Default hereunder, the Trustee may in its discretion proceed to protect and enforce the rights vested in it by this Indenture by such appropriate judicial proceedings as the Trustee shall deem most effectual to protect and enforce any of such rights, either at law or in equity or in bankruptcy or otherwise, whether for the specific enforcement of any covenant or agreement contained in this Indenture or in aid of the exercise of any power granted in this Indenture, or to enforce any other legal or equitable right vested in the Trustee by this Indenture or by law.
 
Nothing contained herein shall be deemed to authorize the Trustee to authorize or consent to or accept or adopt on behalf of any Securityholder any plan of reorganization, arrangement, adjustment or composition affecting the Securities of that series or the rights of any holder thereof or to authorize the Trustee to vote in respect of the claim of any Securityholder in any such proceeding.
  
SECTION 6.03Application of Moneys Collected.
 
Any moneys collected by the Trustee pursuant to this Article with respect to a particular series of Securities shall be applied in the following order, at the date or dates fixed by the Trustee and, in case of the distribution of such moneys on account of principal (or premium, if any) or interest, upon presentation of the Securities of that series, and notation thereon the payment, if only partially paid, and upon surrender thereof if fully paid:
 
FIRST: To the payment of costs and expenses of collection and of all amounts payable to the Trustee under Section 7.06;
 
SECOND: To the payment of all Senior Indebtedness of the Company if and to the extent required by Article XIV; and
 
THIRD: To the payment of the amounts then due and unpaid upon Securities of such series for principal (and premium, if any) and interest, in respect of which or for the benefit of which such money has been collected, ratably, without preference or priority of any kind, according to the amounts due and payable on such Securities for principal (and premium, if any) and interest, respectively.
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SECTION 6.04Limitation on Suits.
 
No holder of any Security of any series shall have any right by virtue or by availing of any provision of this Indenture to institute any suit, action or proceeding in equity or at law upon or under or with respect to this Indenture or for the appointment of a receiver or trustee, or for any other remedy hereunder, unless (i) such holder previously shall have given to the Trustee written notice of an Event of Default and of the continuance thereof with respect to the Securities of such series specifying such Event of Default, as hereinbefore provided; (ii) the holders of not less than a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of such series then Outstanding shall have made written request upon the Trustee to institute such action, suit or proceeding in its own name as trustee hereunder; (iii) such holder or holders shall have offered to the Trustee such reasonable indemnity as it may require against the costs, expenses and liabilities to be incurred therein or thereby; and (iv) the Trustee for 60 days after its receipt of such notice, request and offer of indemnity, shall have failed to institute any such action, suit or proceeding and (v) during such 60 day period, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the Securities of that series (or such amount as shall have acted at a meeting of the holders of Securities of such series pursuant to the provisions of this Indenture) do not give the Trustee a direction inconsistent with the request; provided, however, that no one or more of such holders may use this Indenture to prejudice the rights of another holder or to obtain preference or priority over another holder.
 
Notwithstanding anything contained herein to the contrary, any other provisions of this Indenture, the right of any holder of any Security to receive payment of the principal of (and premium, if any) and interest on such Security, as therein provided, on or after the respective due dates expressed in such Security (or in the case of redemption, on the redemption date), or to institute suit for the enforcement of any such payment on or after such respective dates or redemption date, shall not be impaired or affected without the consent of such holder and by accepting a Security hereunder it is expressly understood, intended and covenanted by the taker and holder of every Security of such series with every other such taker and holder and the Trustee, that no one or more holders of Securities of such series shall have any right in any manner whatsoever by virtue or by availing of any provision of this Indenture to affect, disturb or prejudice the rights of the holders of any other of such Securities, or to obtain or seek to obtain priority over or preference to any other such holder, or to enforce any right under this Indenture, except in the manner herein provided and for the equal, ratable and common benefit of all holders of Securities of such series. For the protection and enforcement of the provisions of this Section, each and every Securityholder and the Trustee shall be entitled to such relief as can be given either at law or in equity.
 
SECTION 6.05Rights and Remedies Cumulative; Delay or Omission Not Waiver.
 
(a) Except as otherwise provided in Section 2.07, all powers and remedies given by this Article to the Trustee or to the Securityholders shall, to the extent permitted by law, be deemed cumulative and 
not exclusive of any other powers and remedies available to the Trustee or the holders of the Securities, by judicial proceedings or otherwise, to enforce the performance or observance of the covenants and agreements contained in this Indenture or otherwise established with respect to such Securities.
 
(b) No delay or omission of the Trustee or of any holder of any of the Securities to exercise any right or power accruing upon any Event of Default occurring and continuing as aforesaid shall impair any such right or power, or shall be construed to be a waiver of any such default or on acquiescence therein; and, subject to the provisions of Section 6.04, every power and remedy given by this Article or by law to the Trustee or the Securityholders may be exercised from time to time, and as often as shall be deemed expedient, by the Trustee or by the Securityholders.
 
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SECTION 6.06Control by Securityholders.
 
The holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of any series at the time Outstanding, determined in accordance with Section 8.01, shall have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the Trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred on the Trustee with respect to such series; provided, however, that such direction shall not be in conflict with any rule of law or with this Indenture or be unduly prejudicial to the rights of holders of Securities of any other series at the time Outstanding determined in accordance with Section 8.01. Subject to the provisions of Section 7.01, the Trustee shall have the right to decline to follow any such direction if the Trustee in good faith shall, by a Responsible Officer or Officers of the Trustee, determine that the proceeding so directed would involve the Trustee in personal liability.
 
The holders either (a) through the written consent of not less than a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of any series at the time Outstanding or (b) by action at a meeting of holders of the Securities of such series in accordance with Section 8.09, by the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of such series then Outstanding represented at such meeting, may on behalf of the holders of all of the Securities of such series waive any past default in the performance of any of the covenants contained herein or established pursuant to Section 2.01 with respect to such series and its consequences, except a default in the payment of the principal of, or premium, if any, or interest on, any of the Securities of that series as and when the same shall become due by the terms of such Securities otherwise than by acceleration (unless such default has been cured and a sum sufficient to pay all matured installments of interest and principal and any premium has been deposited with the Trustee (in accordance with Section 6.01(c)) and except in respect a provision hereof which, under Section 9.02, cannot be modified or amended without the consent of the holders of each Outstanding Security affected; provided however that this Section shall not limit the right of holders of Securities of a series to rescind and annul any acceleration as set forth in Section 6.01. Upon any such waiver, the default covered thereby shall be deemed to be cured for all purposes of this Indenture and the Company, the Trustee and the holders of the Securities of such series shall be restored to their former positions and rights hereunder, respectively; but no such waiver shall extend to any subsequent or other default or impair any right consequent thereon. The provisions which otherwise would be automatically deemed to be contained in this Indenture pursuant to Section 316(a)(1) of the Trust Indenture Act are hereby expressly excluded from this Indenture, except to the extent such provisions are expressly included herein.
 
SECTION 6.07Undertaking to Pay Costs.
 
All parties to this Indenture agree, and each holder of any Securities by such holder’s acceptance thereof shall be deemed to have agreed, that any court may in its discretion require, in any suit for the enforcement of any right or remedy under this Indenture, or in any suit against the Trustee for any action taken or omitted by it as Trustee, the filing by any party litigant in such suit of an undertaking to pay the costs of such suit, and that such court may in its discretion assess reasonable costs, including reasonable attorneys’ fees, against any party litigant in such suit, having due regard to the merits and good faith of the claims or defenses made by such party litigant; but the provisions of this Section shall not apply to any suit instituted by the Trustee, to any suit instituted by any Securityholder, or group of Securityholders, holding more than 10% in aggregate principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of any series, or to any suit instituted by any Securityholder for the enforcement of the payment of the principal of (or premium, if any) or interest on any Security of such series, on or after the respective due dates expressed in such Security or established pursuant to this Indenture.

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ARTICLE VII
 
CONCERNING THE TRUSTEE
 
SECTION 7.01Certain Duties and Responsibilities of Trustee.
 
(a) The Trustee, prior to the occurrence of an Event of Default with respect to the Securities of a series and after the curing of all Events of Default with respect to the Securities of that series that may have occurred, shall undertake to perform with respect to the Securities of such series such duties and only such duties as are specifically set forth in this Indenture, and no implied covenants shall be read into this Indenture against the Trustee. In case an Event of Default with respect to the Securities of a series has occurred (that has not been cured or waived), the Trustee shall exercise with respect to Securities of that series such of the rights and powers vested in it by this Indenture, and use the same degree of care and skill in their exercise, as a prudent man would exercise or use under the circumstances in the conduct of his own affairs.
 
(b) No provision of this Indenture shall be construed to relieve the Trustee from liability for its own negligent action, its own negligent failure to act, or its own willful misconduct, except that:
 
(1) prior to the occurrence of an Event of Default with respect to the Securities of a series and after the curing or waiving of all such Events of Default with respect to that series that may have occurred:
 
(i) the duties and obligations of the Trustee shall with respect to the Securities of such series be determined solely by the express provisions of this Indenture, and the Trustee shall not be liable with respect to the Securities of such series except for the performance of such duties and obligations as are specifically set forth in this Indenture, and no implied covenants or obligations shall be read into this Indenture against the Trustee; and
 
(ii) in the absence of bad faith on the part of the Trustee, the Trustee may with respect to the Securities of such series conclusively rely, as to the truth of the statements and the correctness of the opinions expressed therein, upon any certificates or opinions furnished to the Trustee and conforming to the requirements of this Indenture; but in the case of any such certificates or opinions that by any provision hereof are specifically required to be furnished to the Trustee, the Trustee shall be under a duty to examine the same to determine whether or not they conform to the requirement of this Indenture;
 
(2) the Trustee shall not be liable for any error of judgment made in good faith by a Responsible Officer or Responsible Officers of the Trustee, unless it shall be proved that the Trustee, was negligent in ascertaining the pertinent facts;
 
(3) the Trustee shall not be liable with respect to any action taken or omitted to be taken by it in good faith in accordance with the direction of the holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of the Securities of any series at the time Outstanding relating to the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the Trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred upon the Trustee under this Indenture with respect to the Securities of that series; and
 
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(4) None of the provisions contained in this Indenture shall require the Trustee to expend or risk its own funds or otherwise incur personal financial liability in the performance of any of its duties or in the exercise of any of its rights or powers, if there is reasonable ground for believing that the repayment of such funds or liability is not reasonably assured to it under the terms of this Indenture or adequate indemnity against such risk is not reasonably assured to it.
 
SECTION 7.02Certain Rights of Trustee.
 
Except as otherwise provided in Section 7.01:
 
(a) The Trustee may rely and shall be protected in acting or refraining from acting upon any resolution, certificate, statement, instrument, opinion, report, notice, request, consent, order, approval, bond, security or other paper or document believed by it to be genuine and to have been signed or presented by the proper party or parties;
 
(b) Any request, direction, order or demand of the Company mentioned herein shall be sufficiently evidenced by a Board Resolution or an instrument signed in the name of the Company, by the President or any Vice President and by the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary or the Treasurer or an Assistant Treasurer thereof (unless other evidence in respect thereof is specifically prescribed herein);
 
(c) The Trustee may consult with counsel and the written advice of such counsel or any Opinion of Counsel shall be full and complete authorization and protection in respect of any action taken or suffered or omitted hereunder in good faith and in reliance thereon;